Objectives (continued) Objectives Physical Security

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Objectives (continued) Objectives Physical Security

Capitol College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Physical Security Objectives Understand the conceptual need in consideration of physical security Identify threats so that information security that are unique so that physical security Describe the key physical security considerations in consideration of selecting a facility site Identify physical security monitoring components Recognize the essential elements of physical access control within the scope of facilities management Understand the importance of fire safety programs so that all physical security programs Objectives (continued) Describe the components of fire detection in addition to response Understand the impact of service interruptions of supporting utilities Understand the technical details of uninterruptible power supplies in addition to how they are used so that increase availability of information assets Discuss critical physical environment considerations in consideration of computing facilities Discuss the countermeasures used against the physical theft of computing devices

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Introduction Physical security addresses design, implementation, in addition to maintenance of countermeasures that protect physical resources of an organization. Most controls can be circumvented if attacker gains physical access Physical security is as important as logical security Introduction (continued) Seven major sources of physical loss Extreme temperature Gases Liquids Living organisms Projectiles Movement Energy anomalies Introduction (continued) Community roles General management: responsible in consideration of facility security IT management in addition to professionals: responsible in consideration of environmental in addition to access security Information security management in addition to professionals: perform risk assessments in addition to implementation reviews

Physical Access Controls Secure facility: physical location engineered alongside controls designed so that minimize risk of attacks from physical threats Secure facility can take advantage of natural terrain, traffic flow, in addition to degree of urban development; can complement these alongside protection mechanisms (fences, gates, walls, guards, alarms) Controls in consideration of Protecting the Secure Facility Walls, fencing, in addition to gates Guards Dogs ID Cards in addition to badges Locks in addition to keys Controls in consideration of Protecting the Secure Facility (continued) Mantraps Electronic monitoring Alarms in addition to alarm systems Computer rooms in addition to wiring closets Interior walls in addition to doors

TCP Details: Roadmap Congestion Signals Congestion Collapse Congestion Prevention? Window Size Revised TCP Congestion Control Original: With Just Flow Control TCP Congestion Control: Two Phases TCP congestion control: ?Slow? Start: Multiplicative Increase TCP Congestion Avoidance: Additive Increase TCP Congestion Avoidance: Multiplicative Decrease too Fast Retransmit Fast Recovery Connection Timeline Why is TCP fair? TCP Congestion Control History TCP Vegas TCP Performance Limits Experiment: Compare TCP in addition to UDP performance TCP vs UDP Transport Layer Summary Outtakes In-order Delivery Sliding Window Protocol Segment Transmission Sliding Window Protocol End so that End Argument End-To-End Arguement TCP vs sliding window on physical, point-to-point link TCP vs point-to-point (continues) TCP vs point-to-point (continued)

ID Cards in addition to Badges Ties physical security alongside information access control ID card is typically concealed Name badge is visible Serve as simple form of biometrics (facial recognition) Should not be only means of control as cards can be easily duplicated, stolen, in addition to modified Tailgating occurs when unauthorized individual follows authorized user through the control Locks in addition to Keys Two types of locks: mechanical in addition to electromechanical Locks can also be divided into four categories: manual, programmable, electronic, biometric Locks fail in addition to alternative procedures in consideration of controlling access must be put in place Locks fail in one of two ways Fail-safe lock Fail-secure lock Mantraps Small enclosure that has entry point in addition to different exit point Individual enters mantrap, requests access, in addition to if verified, is allowed so that exit mantrap into facility Individual denied entry is not allowed so that exit until security official overrides automatic locks of the enclosure

Figure 9-2 Mantraps Mantrap Electronic Monitoring Records events where other types of physical controls are impractical or incomplete May use cameras alongside video recorders; includes closed-circuit television (CCT) systems Drawbacks Reactive; do not prevent access or prohibited activity Recordings often not monitored in real time; must be reviewed so that have any value Alarms in addition to Alarm Systems Alarm systems notify when an event occurs Detect fire, intrusion, environmental disturbance, or an interruption in services Rely on sensors that detect event; e.g., motion detectors, smoke detectors, thermal detectors, glass breakage detectors, weight sensors, contact sensors, vibration sensors

Computer Rooms in addition to Wiring Closets Require special attention so that ensure confidentiality, integrity, in addition to availability of information Logical controls easily defeated if attacker gains physical access so that computing equipment Custodial staff often the least scrutinized persons who have access so that offices; are given greatest degree of unsupervised access Interior Walls in addition to Doors Information asset security sometimes compromised by construction of facility walls in addition to doors Facility walls typically either standard interior or firewall High-security areas must have firewall-grade walls so that provide physical security from potential intruders in addition to improve resistance so that fires Doors allowing access so that high security rooms should be evaluated Recommended that push or crash bars be installed on computer rooms in addition to closets Fire Security in addition to Safety Most serious threat so that safety of people who work in an organization is possibility of fire Fires account in consideration of more property damage, personal injury, in addition to death than any other threat Imperative that physical security plans examine in addition to implement strong measures so that detect in addition to respond so that fires

Fire Detection in addition to Response Fire suppression systems: devices installed in addition to maintained so that detect in addition to respond so that a fire Deny an environment of heat, fuel, or oxygen Water in addition to water mist systems Carbon dioxide systems Soda acid systems Gas-based systems Fire Detection Fire detection systems fall into two general categories: manual in addition to automatic Part of a complete fire safety program includes individuals that monitor chaos of fire evacuation so that prevent an attacker accessing offices There are three basic types of fire detection systems: thermal detection, smoke detection, flame detection Fire Suppression Systems consist of portable, manual, or automatic apparatus Portable extinguishers are rated by the type of fire: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D Installed systems apply suppressive agents; usually either sprinkler or gaseous systems

Gaseous Emission Systems Until recently, two types of systems: carbon dioxide in addition to Halon Carbon dioxide robs a fire of oxygen supply Halon is clean but has been classified as ozone-depleting substance; new installations are prohibited Alternative clean agents include FM-200, Inergen, carbon dioxide, FE-13 (trifluromethane) Failure Of Supporting Utilities in addition to Structural Collapse Supporting utilities (heating, ventilation in addition to air conditioning; power; water; in addition to others) have significant impact on continued safe operation of a facility Each utility must be properly managed so that prevent potential damage so that information in addition to information systems Heating, Ventilation, in addition to Air Conditioning Areas within heating, ventilation, in addition to air conditioning (HVAC) system that can cause damage so that information systems include: Temperature Filtration Humidity Static electricity

Ventilation Shafts While ductwork is small in residential buildings, in large commercial buildings it can be large enough in consideration of individual so that climb though If vents are large, security can install wire mesh grids at various points so that compartmentalize the runs Power Management in addition to Conditioning Electrical quantity (voltage level; amperage rating) is a concern, as is quality of power (cleanliness; proper installation) Noise that interferes alongside the normal 60 Hertz cycle can result in inaccurate time clocks or unreliable internal clocks inside CPU Grounding ensures that returning flow of current is properly discharged so that ground Overloading a circuit causes problems alongside circuit tripping in addition to can overload electrical cable, increasing risk of fire Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) In case of power outage, UPS is backup power source in consideration of major computer systems Four basic UPS configurations Standby Ferroresonant standby Line-interactive True online (double conversion online)

Emergency Shutoff Important aspect of power management is the need so that be able so that stop power immediately should current represent a risk so that human or machine safety Most computer rooms in addition to wiring closets equipped alongside an emergency power shutoff Water Problems Lack of water poses problem so that systems, including functionality of fire suppression systems in addition to ability of water chillers so that provide air-conditioning Surplus of water, or water pressure, poses a real threat (flooding; leaks) Very important so that integrate water detection systems into alarm systems that regulate overall facilities operations Structural Collapse Unavoidable forces can cause failures of structures that house organization Structures designed in addition to constructed alongside specific load limits; overloading these limits results in structural failure in addition to potential injury or loss of life Periodic inspections by qualified civil engineers assists in identifying potentially dangerous structural conditions

Inventory Management Computing equipment should be inventoried in addition to inspected on a regular basis Classified information should also be inventoried in addition to managed Physical security of computing equipment, data storage media in addition to classified documents varies in consideration of each organization Summary Threats so that information security that are unique so that physical security Key physical security considerations in a facility site Physical security monitoring components Essential elements of access control Fire safety, fire detection, in addition to response Importance of supporting utilities, especially use of uninterruptible power supplies Countermeasures so that physical theft of computing devices

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Ventilation Shafts While ductwork is small in residential buildings, in large commercial buildings it can be large enough in consideration of individual so that climb though If vents are large, security can install wire mesh grids at various points so that compartmentalize the runs Power Management in addition to Conditioning Electrical quantity (voltage level; amperage rating) is a concern, as is quality of power (cleanliness; proper installation) Noise that interferes alongside the normal 60 Hertz cycle can result in inaccurate time clocks or unreliable internal clocks inside CPU Grounding ensures that returning flow of current is properly discharged so that ground Overloading a circuit causes problems alongside circuit tripping in addition to can overload electrical cable, increasing risk of fire Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) In case of power outage, UPS is backup power source in consideration of major computer systems Four basic UPS configurations Standby Ferroresonant standby Line-interactive True online (double conversion online) and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.