Objectives The Branches of Physics Physics Physics in addition to Technology Scientific Method
Halloran, Lori, Field Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 1 Objectives Identify activities in addition to fields that involve the major areas within physics. Describe the processes of the scientific method. Describe the role of models in addition to diagrams in physics. The Branches of Physics Physics The goal of physics is to use a small number of basic concepts, equations, in addition to assumptions to describe the physical world. These physics principles can then be used to make predictions about a broad range of phenomena. Physics discoveries often turn out to have unexpected practical applications, in addition to advances in technology can in turn lead to new physics discoveries.
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Physics in addition to Technology Scientific Method Initial Observation Problem Hypothesis Experimentation in addition to Observation Results Draw Conclusions Experimental question or what you want to find out. Carry out your experimental procedure in order to test your hypotheses. Manipulate some aspect of nature in addition to observe the outcome. Possible rationalization as long as a set of observations or the likely explanation of the problem. Collect data in addition to per as long as m calculations as long as analysis. Create tables in addition to graphs. Analyze data. Summarize results; Check your hypothesis; in addition to draw conclusions that explain problem, solution, in addition to implications as long as others. Predict the future. You notice (senses) something object, movement, etc Scientific Method What We Know 4. Prediction 3. Hypothesis 2. Identifying Patterns 7. Draw Conclusions 1. Observations 5. Experiments 6. Data
The Scientific Method There is no single procedure that scientists follow in their work. However, there are certain steps common to all good scientific investigations. These steps are called the scientific method. Hypotheses Models help scientists develop hypotheses. A hypothesis is an explanation that is based on prior scientific research or observations in addition to that can be tested. The process of simplifying in addition to modeling a situation can help you determine the relevant variables in addition to identify a hypothesis as long as testing. Scientific Method
Hypotheses, continued Galileo modeled the behavior of falling objects in order to develop a hypothesis about how objects fall. If heavier objects fell faster than slower ones,would two bricks of different masses tied together fall slower (b) or faster (c) than the heavy brick alone (a) Because of this contradiction, Galileo hypothesized instead that all objects fall at the same rate, as in (d). Dont Get Them Confused! Hypothesis Prediction of the outcome of an experiment. Theory a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world. an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena. Has lots of observational in addition to experimental support. Law Well tested in addition to supported theory that is true as long as a variety of circumstances a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature Controlled Experiments A hypothesis must be tested in a controlled experiment. A controlled experiment tests only one factor at a time by using a comparison of a control group with an experimental group.
Section 2 Objectives List basic SI units in addition to the quantities they describe. Convert measurements into scientific notation. Distinguish between accuracy in addition to precision. Use significant figures in measurements in addition to calculations. Numbers as Measurements In SI, the st in addition to ard measurement system as long as science, there are seven base units. Each base unit describes a single dimension, such as length, mass, or time. Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s electric current ampere A Thermodynamic temperature kelvin K amount of substance mole mol luminous intensity c in addition to ela cd
Derived units are as long as med by combining the base units with multiplication or division. For example, speeds are typically expressed in units of meters per second (m/s). length meter (m) mass time kilogram (kg) second (s) Units SI Derived units are as long as med by combining the base units with multiplication or division. For example, speeds are typically expressed in units of meters per second (m/s). Each base unit describes a single dimension, such as length, mass, or time. length meter (m) mass time kilogram (kg) second (s) REVIEW SI St in addition to ards
SI Prefixes The most common prefixes in addition to their symbols are shown in the table. In SI, units are combined with prefixes that symbolize certain powers of 10. Dimensions in addition to Units Measurements of physical quantities must be expressed in units that match the dimensions of that quantity. In addition to having the correct dimension, measurements used in calculations should also have the same units. For example: buying carpet What units should we use Sample Problem A typical bacterium has a mass of about 2.0 fg. Express this measurement in terms of grams in addition to kilograms. Unknown: mass = g mass = kg Given: mass = 2.0 fg Write what we know then what we are looking as long as . Step 1
Step 2 Sample Problem These fractions equal 1, since the numerator in addition to the denominator are equal by conversion Step 3 Sample Problem Only the first one will cancel the units of femtograms to give units of grams. Essentially, we are multiplying 2.0 fg by 1 In order to make the units equal Sample Problem, continued Take the previous answer, in addition to use a similar process to cancel the units of grams to give units of kilograms.
Accuracy in addition to Precision Accuracy is a description of how close a measurement is to the correct or accepted value of the quantity measured. Precision is the degree of exactness of a measurement. A numeric measure of confidence in a measurement or result is known as uncertainty. A lower uncertainty indicates greater confidence. Accuracy in addition to Precision Measurement in addition to Parallax
Significant Figures It is important to record the precision of your measurements so that other people can underst in addition to in addition to interpret your results. A common convention used in science to indicate precision is known as significant figures. Significant figures are those digits in a measurement that are known with certainty plus the first digit that is uncertain. Significant Figures Even though this ruler is marked in only centimeters in addition to half-centimeters, if you estimate, you can use it to report measurements to a precision of a millimeter. Rules as long as Sig Fig Rule 1 Zeros between other nonzero digits are significant. Examples 50.3 m has three significant figures 3.0025 s has five significant figures
Evaluating Physics Equations
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