Opportunities as long as Dust Polarization Surveys Outline Galactic Field in AV 1 Medium Galactic Field in AV 10 Medium Galactic Field in AV 100 Medium

Opportunities as long as Dust Polarization Surveys Outline Galactic Field in AV  1 Medium Galactic Field in AV  10 Medium Galactic Field in AV  100 Medium www.phwiki.com

Opportunities as long as Dust Polarization Surveys Outline Galactic Field in AV 1 Medium Galactic Field in AV 10 Medium Galactic Field in AV 100 Medium

Felz, Joe, News Productions and Production Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry Opportunities as long as Dust Polarization Surveys C. Darren Dowell (Caltech) /30 Outline magnetic fields in interstellar clouds observational in addition to theoretical approaches dust composition, shape, in addition to alignment sensitivity comparison survey approaches 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Magnetic Field Strengths in Interstellar Clouds

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3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Galactic Field in AV 1 Medium optical polarimetry 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Galactic Field in AV 10 Medium BICEP: southern sky at = 2 mm, 1º resolution 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Galactic Field in AV 100 Medium FIR-bright cloud cores: no B angle correlation with Gal. plane data from Dotson et al. (2000, 2008)

Measuring Magnetic Fields In addition to the usual problems with line-of-sight averaging in addition to unresolved structure: vector B = (Bx, By, Blos) Blos: Zeeman, Faraday rotation tan-1(By/Bx): synchrotron, dust polarization 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Measuring Magnetic Fields In addition to the usual problems with line-of-sight averaging in addition to unresolved structure: vector B = (Bx, By, Blos) Blos: Zeeman, Faraday rotation tan-1(By/Bx): synchrotron, dust polarization (Bx2+By2): dust polarization via Ch in addition to rasekhar-Fermi approach 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 WMAP all-sky synchrotron map 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30

3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Berkhuijsen (1997) complementarity of synchrotron in addition to dust mapping 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Blue: Spitzer 8 mm red: Bolocam/CSO 1.1 mm purple: VLA 20 cm Bally et al. (2009) complementarity of synchrotron in addition to dust polarization 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Chuss et al. (2003) 60-350 mm

3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Far-IR polarimetry is an excellent tracer of magnetic fields at densities up to 106 cm-3. Schleuning (1998) Rao et al. (1998) Ward-Thompson et al. (2000) Orion Core L183 Dark Cloud B vec B vec Tests of Cloud in addition to Core Formation Theory with FIR Polarimetry Ordered structures flow along field lines tidal shear swept-up shells accretion disks Large features resulting from instabilities Dispersion in field Ch in addition to rasekhar-Fermi approach 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Far-IR polarimetry tests geometrical models of magnetic fields: protostars “hourglass” field in protostellar envelope NGC 1333 IRAS 4A observation w/ interferometer: Girart, Rao, & Marrone (2000) model: Fiedler & Mouschovias 1993 B vec

3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Far-IR polarimetry tests geometrical models of magnetic fields: cloud cores Kirby (2008) Schleuning (1998); Houde et al. (2004) 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Kim & Ostriker (2006) swing amplifier effect magneto-Jeans instability Kim & Ostriker (2001) Far-IR polarimetry tests geometrical models of magnetic fields: cloud as long as mation 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Magnetic Field Strength from Ch in addition to rasekhar-Fermi Method B = x r1/2 Dv / Dq x: Ostriker et al.(2001); Padoan et al. (2001); Heitsch et al. (2001); Falceta-Goncalves et al. (2008) strong field: small dispersion weak field: large dispersion Falceta-Gonçalves, et al. (2008)

3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Magnetic Field Strength from Ch in addition to rasekhar-Fermi Method B = x r1/2 Dv / Dq x: Ostriker et al.(2001); Padoan et al. (2001); Heitsch et al. (2001); Falceta-Goncalves et al. (2008) strong field: small dispersion weak field: large dispersion Falceta-Gonçalves, et al. (2008) B 80 mG Grain Alignment & Composition current theory of grain alignment (Lazarian et al.): Paramagnetic relaxation no longer needed. Instead, radiative torques on asymmetric grains will do. Alignment with polarization perpendicular to field still applies. Observational tests possible. 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Vaillancourt et al. (2008) Into the Next Decade optical/near-IR: big surveys of starlight polarization FIR: BLASTpol: mapping full molecular clouds SOFIA: precision application of Ch in addition to rasekhar-Fermi submm: Planck: all-sky polarization survey ALMA: great as long as circumstellar dust radio: EVLA, GBT 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30

HAWCpol/SOFIA 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 started Oct. 2008 on JPL internal funds permanent upgrade to HAWC good as long as sources up to ~8’ Required Polarization Sensitivity typical degree polarization = 3% typical intrinsic dispersion = 10° – 30° s(q) = 3°, s(P) = 0.3% photometric signal-to-noise of 500 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Hildebr in addition to et al. (1999) 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Far-IR polarimetry is 106 faster from space. sensitivity to extended emission BLASTpol

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Giant Steps MIDEX-class FIR polarization survey SAFIR polarimeter SPIRIT polarimeter EPIC (CMBPol) with extended high-frequency coverage SKA 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Dedicated Polarization Survey 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 PIREX/M4 (Clemens, P.I.; Goodman; Jones) satellite proposed to NASA 1990, 1993, 1996 possible reasons as long as non-selection: Polarimetry not a scientific priority as long as NASA. Difficult as long as a cryogenic mission to compete on the NASA SMEX playing field. Unsuccessful Origins Probe proposal to study FIR polarimeter in addition to C+ heterodyne spectrometer on 0.5 – 1 m telescope (Dowell, Langer et al.) M4: 0.2 m cold telescope 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 with SAFIR/CALISTO: 5 hours integration time (104 detectors) 5” = 20 pc resolution at = 100 m likely detection of polarization wherever AV > 0.3 MIPS 24 mm (Gordon et al.)

EPIC Polarization Mapping EPIC/850 GHz can make accurate polarization maps with 108 resolution elements. coverage map, s(P) 0.3% Planck/350GHz 5’ EPIC/850GHz 40K, 5’ EPIC/850GHz 4K, 1’ 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 Enabling Technologies as long as Space Far-IR Polarimetry polarization-sensitive detectors polarization modulation low-power cryogenic rotating quartz half-wave plate scan modulation only (Boomerang Planck) Good polarimeters usually make good cameras. NEP = 10-18 W Hz-1/2 is adequate as long as detectors. Antenna-Coupled 200 mm TES Detector 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /30 work by Peter Day et al. (JPL/Caltech)

3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /22 Space far-IR polarimetry with a 5+ m telescope is an essential tool. Consider a modest instrument on a 5 m telescope cooled to 4 K (‘CALISTO’): 1000 polarization-sensitive pixels covering b in addition to s at = 30 – 300 m (most of the mass in addition to luminosity, component separation) angular resolution 5 at 100 m (protostellar size scale) CALISTO: design concept as long as SAFIR 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /22 Prospects as long as space far-IR polarimetry Infrared Space Observatory (1995-1998): polarimeter add-on, limited results M4: not funded Spitzer Space Telescope (2003-2009): no polarimetry Herschel Space Obs. (2009-2013): no polarimetry Planck (2009-2011): all-sky survey, 300 resolution SPICA (2015-2020): no polarimetry planned 2001 Decadal Survey: “Magnetic fields play a crucial role in the as long as mation of stars .” “Polarization” only mentioned in context of CMB. Much the same story in NASA science plans. Conclusion: Need to start campaigning early as long as a polarimeter on a big, cold telescope. 3/11/09 C. D. Dowell, Keck Institute/Dust Polarimetry /22 Wide Polarization Survey from Space Map 100 square degrees worth of molecular clouds at l = 100 mm (5 resolution with 5 m telescope): Detect polarization where AV 0.3 Requires 50 hours with 10,000 pixel detector array Contours show regions where (P) would be < 0.3%. Millions of polarization vectors map of magnetic field structure in addition to strength on almost all relevant angular scales. Orion A Orion B Oph 10º

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