Organizational/Institutional Politics Micro-level Politics Political sociology

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Organizational/Institutional Politics Micro-level Politics Political sociology

Christendom College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Political sociology Focusing on power or political realm Micro-level Politics – voting studies in addition to political attitudes Phil Converse: nature of belief systems in mass publics in addition to role of opinion leaders in addition to local influentials Bill Gamson: how media affects attitudes in addition to how groups (as opposed so that mass media) frame issues Organizational/Institutional Politics Pluralism: Dominant Theory of Decisionmaking in U.S. Government Competing leaders Compromise Logrolling: helping out Greatest good in consideration of greatest number Protection of minority interests Multiple interests Multi-faceted: class, status, party Issue specific Cross-cutting

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Weber’s Theory of Interests Class: life chances: education in addition to property Status: life style: Goths or Metrosexuals or Hip Hop Players/Gangsters or stay-at-home moms Party: power ability so that get what you want despite resistance might be class based, status based, both or neither tends so that be more status based when economy is stable; class based during economic upheavals Cross-cutting soldidarities bfw bmw Party Systems Organizational in addition to Institutional Anthony Downs: Effects of Two Party System: convergence liberal party conservative party Distribution of Constituent Political Attitudes

Integrated Political Theory of 1970 Mass society: Macro Level/Institutional accessible elites: lack of intermediate buffers between masses in addition to elites available masses: lack of integration into local associations in addition to collectivities Available Masses swept into mass movements that threaten accessible elites Kornhauser’s Mass Society Available Non-elites: Lack of secondary, voluntary associations: mal-integration Accessible Elites: Vulnerability so that non-elite influence, direct or mediated Collective Behavior: Organizational in addition to Group Level Theory Neil Smelser, Theory of Collective Behavior, mass movements begin alongside breakdown of social control milling in addition to gossip conducive so that generalized beliefs need in consideration of immediate action sense of empowerment utopian goals

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Frustration-Aggression: Social Psychological Theory Ted Gurr: intolerable “want-get” gap literature on reference groups relative deprivation James Davies “J” curve of declining rewards/expectations intolerable gap (like Gurr) Davies J Curve of Rising Expectation Leading so that Frustration Rewards High Low Time Early Late expected obtained intolerable want-get gap Political Theory in 1970 Masses were not politically informed or rational in political attitudes or actions (Converse) Pluralism required that elites remain accessible but masses must be integrated into intermediate associations (Kornhauser) Parties tended toward moderation, but masses were susceptible so that extremist appeals (Downs in addition to Smelser)

Political Theory 1970 Predictions nonroutine political action increased when times were hard in addition to social integration in addition to social control broke down nonroutine action increased as routine action declined nonroutine participants were socially isolated in addition to politically uninvolved/uninformed nonroutine action was ineffective/expressive (emotional rather than rational) Viewed From Functional Theory Routine action indicated value consensus in addition to integration Non-routine action was indicative of “anomie” in addition to malintegration Protests, demonstrations, marches, in addition to riots of 1950s in addition to 1960s were dysfunctional society was out of balance/equilibrium, moving toward anarchy in addition to chaos Viewed From Conflict Perspective Sociologists sympathetic alongside movements of the Fifties in addition to Sixties: Civil Rights, Students, Anti-War Challenged Functional theory Argued that protesters were as rational as people who studied them Celebrated the awakening of American democracy

Evidence Challenging Functional Theory Jeff Paige (Oct 1971, ASR) survey of 237 black men in Newark, NJ riot participants had high efficacy in addition to low trust of government rioters were knowledgeable but distrustful Rioters were knowledgeable but less trustful compared so that civil rights activists Percent Participation by Trust in Government Rioting Evidence (continued) Feagin in addition to Hahn, Ghetto Revolts (1973) found rioters more likely so that be long-term residents rioters well integrated into ghetto community targets were chosen rationally?absentee landlords rather than local residents

Bill Gamson, Strategy of Social Protest (1975) Historical Analysis of ?Political Challengers,? 1800-1940 Roughly half were at least modestly successful in achieving their goals Challengers alongside modest (reform) goals were not more successful Challengers who used nonviolence were not necessarily more successful Organized challengers were more successful Outcome of Resolved Challenges Charles Tilly Shorter in addition to Tilly, Strikes in France (1974) Strikes more common when times were good Low unemployment Economic growth Tilly, Mobilization so that Revolution (1978) Political violence in addition to routine political action (e.g., voting) often go hand in hand

Evidence Summary Research accumulated in 1970s so that challenge various pieces of the mass society, collective behavior, in addition to relative deprivation theories of political influence Thus the integrated theory has been thoroughly critiqued in addition to challenged both theoretically in addition to empirically Challenges so that Pluralist Model of Decision-making While Mass Society, etc. was being challenged, a variety of studies challenged the pluralist model of decision-making These studies are generally guided by conflict theory in addition to are might be called the ?ruling elite? model of decision-making Ruling Elite Studies Floyd Hunter?s study of Atlanta, Community Power Structure (1953) is the classic study of elite networks in addition to elite domination of public policy Dorothy Nehil?s study of Boston indicates elite domination through networks of business in addition to political elites Bachrach in addition to Baratz (1962) classic on ?nondecisions? promoted by elites

Ruling Elite Studies (continued) Matthew Crenson, Unpolitics of Air Pollution (1971) showed how pollution remained a ?non-issue? in the most polluted cities Our own Robert Perrucci in addition to Marc Pillisuk (ASR 1970) showed how inter-organizational leaders, who served on multiple corporate boards in addition to linked these orgs Had a reputation in consideration of local power Had similar attitudes in addition to interests in local politics Pluralist Versus Ruling Elite in addition to Functional versus Conflict Models Methodological distinctions Pluralist focus on public policy decisions in addition to public meetings Ruling elite focus on inter-organizational networks in addition to reputation in consideration of power/influence Debate (continued) Theoretical arguments Liberals argue that poor people or non-elites have so that fight their way into the polity Elites promote non-decisions/status quo Political challenges predicted by Interests Organization opportunity Political challenges produce social change

Tilly?s Mobilization Model Organization Interest Mobilization Repression/ Facilitation Power Opportunity/ Threat Collective Action Source: Tilly (1978), p. 56 Tilly?s (1978) Interests Marxist: use class as ?predictors of the interests people will pursue in the long run? (p. 61); these are objective class interests Subjective/expressed interests: Tilly uses these so that predict what people will do in the short run Marx roots interests in the relations in addition to modes of production in addition to the relations between in addition to within classes?the relations of life in addition to work Weber distinguishes class, status, in addition to party interests, which may or may not predict collective action. Tilly?s (1978, p. 63) Organization in Terms of Categories in addition to Networks Catness Netness high low high low Casual Crowd Friendship Networks All Brazilians Printers Union Local organization

Rights (continued) All of these rights were granted by the state Federalist concessions: Bill of Rights FDR/Wagner: Wagner Act JFK/LBJ So rights are both demanded in addition to granted Piven in addition to Cloward (and Hogan) Political Opportunities, interests, in addition to organization are all rooted in institutional structure Crises in republican capitalism Depression of 1930s Destruction of Southern cotton economy Rise of post-industrial or postmodern economy

Powell, Robert K-12 Education Reporter

Powell, Robert is from United States and they belong to K-12 Education Reporter and work for Arizona Republic in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.

Journal Ratings by Christendom College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Ruling Elite Studies (continued) Matthew Crenson, Unpolitics of Air Pollution (1971) showed how pollution remained a ?non-issue? in the most polluted cities Our own Robert Perrucci in addition to Marc Pillisuk (ASR 1970) showed how inter-organizational leaders, who served on multiple corporate boards in addition to linked these orgs Had a reputation in consideration of local power Had similar attitudes in addition to interests in local politics Pluralist Versus Ruling Elite in addition to Functional versus Conflict Models Methodological distinctions Pluralist focus on public policy decisions in addition to public meetings Ruling elite focus on inter-organizational networks in addition to reputation in consideration of power/influence Debate (continued) Theoretical arguments Liberals argue that poor people or non-elites have so that fight their way into the polity Elites promote non-decisions/status quo Political challenges predicted by Interests Organization opportunity Political challenges produce social change and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.