Overview Coastal Regions Beach Features Other Beach Profile Features Other Beach Profile Features

Overview Coastal Regions Beach Features Other Beach Profile Features Other Beach Profile Features www.phwiki.com

Overview Coastal Regions Beach Features Other Beach Profile Features Other Beach Profile Features

Stacie K.,, Mid-Day host;Promotions Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal CHAPTER 10 The Coast: Beaches in addition to Shoreline Processes Overview Coastal regions constantly change. The beach is a dominant coastal feature. Wave activity continually modifies the beach in addition to coastal areas. Waves affect deposition in addition to erosion of s in addition to in addition to subsequent coastal features. Sea level changes affect the coast. Humans have attempted various coastal stabilization measures. Coastal Regions General Features Shore – the zone that lies between the low tide line in addition to the highest area on l in addition to affected by storm waves Coast – extends inl in addition to as far as ocean related features are found Coastline – boundary between shore in addition to coast

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Beach Features Beach – entire active area of a coast affected by waves. Consists of Shore – divided into Backshore – above high tide line; covered with water only during storms Nearshore – from low tide water line to where waves break at low tide Offshore – area beyond low tide breaking waves Other Beach Profile Features Wave-cut bench – flat, wave-eroded surface Recreational beach – area above the shoreline Berm – dry, gently sloping region

Other Beach Profile Features Beach face – wet, sloping surface between berm in addition to shoreline Longshore bar – underwater s in addition to bar parallel to the coast Longshore trough – separates longshore bar from the beach Composition of Beaches Formed from locally available material May be coarse or fine grained sediment Boulders from local cliffs S in addition to from rivers Mud from rivers Significant biologic material on tropical beaches Example, Coral reef material Material is always in transit along the shoreline. S in addition to Movement Along Beach Two Major Types Perpendicular to shoreline (toward in addition to away) Swash – water rushes up the beach Backwash – water drains back to the ocean Parallel to shoreline (up-coast or down-coast) Longshore current – transports s in addition to along the beach

Swash in addition to Backwash Longshore Transport Wintertime Beach Heavy wave activity Backwash dominates Sediment moved away from shore Narrower beach Flattened beach face Longshore bars are present Stormy weather

Summertime Beach Light wave activity Wide, s in addition to y berm Steep beach face Swash dominates Longshore bars not present Generally milder storms Longshore Current Parallel motion of water along shoreline Caused by wave refraction Causes zigzag motion of water in surf zone Longshore currents travel at speeds up to 4 km (2.5 miles) per hour

Longshore Transport Also called longshore drift, beach drift, or littoral drift Only occurs in the shallow water surf zone Transports beach sediment in a zigzag fashion in the direction of the longshore current Beaches sometimes called “rivers of s in addition to ” Longshore Transport Millions of tons of sediment moved yearly Direction of transport changes due to wave approach In general, net sediment movement is southward along the Atlantic in addition to Pacific coasts of the United States Two Major Types of Shores Erosional Shores Well-developed cliffs Exist where tectonic uplift of coast occurs U.S. Pacific coast is one example Depositional Shores Gradually subsiding shore Barrier isl in addition to s in addition to s in addition to deposits are common

Erosional Shores Protruding bits of l in addition to called headl in addition to s absorb much wave energy. Wave cut cliffs in addition to sea caves are other features carved out by wave activity. Erosional Shores Sea arches as long as m where sea caves in headl in addition to s erode all the way through. Sea stacks as long as m when the tops of sea arches erode away completely. Bedrock uplift generates a marine terrace. Erosional Shorelines Wave erosion increases with More shore exposed to open ocean Smaller tidal range Weaker bedrock

Depositional Shorelines A bay barrier, or bay mouth bar, seals off a lagoon from the ocean. A Tombolo is an s in addition to bar that connects an isl in addition to to the mainl in addition to . Barrier isl in addition to s are long offshore s in addition to deposits that parallel the coast. A spit connects at one end to the mainl in addition to in addition to hooks into a bay at the other. Depositional Shorelines Depositional Shorelines Tombolo Barrier isl in addition to

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Barrier Isl in addition to s Common along East in addition to Gulf coasts of the United States Do not exist along erosional shorelines Protect mainl in addition to from high wave activity Can migrate l in addition to ward over time Barrier Isl in addition to Anatomy Ocean beach Dunes Barrier flat High salt marsh Low salt marsh Lagoon Barrier Isl in addition to Ocean Beach – closest part of the isl in addition to to the ocean Dune – stabilized by grasses; protect lagoon from strong storms Barrier flat – grassy area that as long as ms behind dunes

Barrier Isl in addition to High in addition to low salt marshes – biologically productive wetl in addition to s Generate peat deposits of decaying organic matter Lagoon – water between barrier isl in addition to in addition to mainl in addition to Barrier Isl in addition to s Migrate l in addition to ward over time due to rising sea levels Older peat deposits found on ocean beach Deltas Triangular deposits of sediment where rivers empty into oceans or seas Distributaries carry sediment to ocean

Alternatives to Hard Stabilization Beach replenishment S in addition to added to beach/longshore current Expensive; costs between $5 in addition to $10 per cubic yard S in addition to must be dredged from elsewhere. Alternatives to hard stabilization Relocation Move structures rather than protect them in areas of erosion End of CHAPTER 10 The Coast: Beaches in addition to Shoreline Processes

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