Overview of the US ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) Technical Plan
Olmstead, Marty, Features Editor and Assistant Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Overview of the US ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) Technical Plan Mohamed Abdou as long as the US ITER TBM Team Presented at 17th ANS TOFE, Albuquerque, NM November 15, 2006 Testing Blankets is an integral part of ITER planning – all Parties view TBM testing as key motivation as long as ITER Day 1 H-H Phase TBM Testing is required by ITER as long as : Optimization of plasma control in the presence of Ferritic Steel TBMs Qualification of remote h in addition to ling procedures Qualification in addition to licensing of the experimental TBM designs in addition to operation be as long as e D-T phase ITER has allocated 3 ITER equatorial ports (1.75 x 2.2 m2) to TBM testing Test planning is managed by TBWG which consists of: Representatives of the seven ITER Parties Representatives of the ITER International Team Ground rules as long as port allocation, space usage, in addition to collaboration are being negotiated in a high-level Ad-Hoc committee created by IPC with government level representatives US TBM Technical Plan in addition to Cost Estimates have been developed in addition to favorably reviewed (ready as long as implementation) The US Fusion Community completed the development of a Technical Plan in addition to Cost Estimate as long as the US TBM. It presents detailed technical options in addition to credible cost estimates as long as consideration by the US Government. (It follows the US ITER Project Methodology.) The ef as long as t was requested by DOE (Gene Nardella) in August 2005. The ef as long as t was per as long as med by the US ITER TBM Team, which includes experts from the Plasma Chamber, Materials, Safety, Plasma Facing Components, in addition to Tritium programs. Costing in addition to project management professionals from Oak Ridge National Laboratory in addition to experts from various universities, national laboratories, in addition to industry also assisted in developing the cost estimates in addition to schedule. Consultation with TBM teams in other countries was very helpful as well. DOE External Review was conducted August 15-16, 2006. All Reviews were very positive.
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US TBM Program Mission Utilize ITER environment as long as invaluable technology testing The principal mission of the US ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) Program is to develop, deploy, in addition to operate ITER TBM experiments that provide unique experimental data on, in addition to operational experience with, the integrated function of US blanket components in addition to materials in a true fusion plasma-magnetic-nuclear-thermal-chemical environment. TBM Transporter Container Pipes to TCWS in addition to Tritium Building PbLi loop Bio-shield VV Port Extension TBM Port Frame TBM testing requires a whole TBM system (module + ancillary equipment) Example US DCLL TBM in addition to support systems in the port cell area (He systems in TCWS not shown) Specific TBM Test Objectives include: Validation of structural response under combined thermal, mechanical, in addition to EM loads Validation of tritium breeding predictions Validation of tritium recovery process efficiency, tritium control in addition to inventories Validation of thermonuclear in addition to thermofluid MHD predictions in strongly heterogeneous blanket in addition to first wall structures with volumetric heat sources Demonstration in addition to underst in addition to ing of integral per as long as mance of blanket components in addition to material systems Experience with design, fabrication, installation in addition to maintenance of prototypical blanket in addition to first wall structures Baseline strategy proposes different levels of participation as long as two US TBM concepts 1. The Dual-Coolant PbLi Liquid Breeder Blanket (DCLL) concept with self-cooled PbLi breeding zone in addition to flow channel inserts (FCIs) as MHD in addition to thermal insulator. Innovative concept (favored by US PC in addition to ARIES, in addition to EU DEMO) that provides pathway to higher outlet temperature/higher thermal efficiency while using ferritic steel . US lead role in collaboration with other parties. Plan an independent TBM that will occupy half an ITER test port. 2. The Helium-Cooled Solid Breeder Blanket (HCCB) concept with ferritic steel structure in addition to beryllium neutron multiplier, but without an independent TBM. Supporting partnership with other parties with shared ancillary equipment. With modest investment in HCCB, US will gain access to large international program, Contribute submodule test articles that focus on particular technical issues. ALL parties are interested. HCCB is the most likely c in addition to idate as long as near-term breeding blankets, e.g. in ITER extended phase. DCLL TBM Module (1660 x 484 x 410 mm) He-cooled RAFS FW Poloidal flow PbLi Channel SiC FCI HCCB TBM sub-module (710 389 510 mm) He-cooled RAFS FW Ceramic breeder pebbles Be Pebbles After extensive ef as long as t two blanket concepts that have substantially different feasibility issues were selected: Main Features of the DCLL Pathway to higher thermal per as long as mance with ferritic steel RAFS first wall in addition to structure cooled with high pressure (8MPa) helium operating at 350-420C (flexible) in ITER (higher in DEMO) Breeding zone is self-cooled PbLi operating at (360-470C) in ITER (higher in DEMO) Structure in addition to Breeding zone separated by SiC flow channel inserts (FCI) ~5mm thick Provide thermal insulation to decouple PbLi bulk flow temperature from RAFS walls Provide electrical insulation to reduce MHD pressure drop in the flowing liquid metal He Coolant Outlet Pipe US DCLL TBM Module (1660 x 484 x 410 mm) Toroidal flow He-cooled First Wall Poloidal flow PbLi Channel SiC FCI Concept: PbLi exit temperature can be significantly higher than the operating temperature of the steel structure High Efficiency
HCCB Joint Partnership The proposed US HCCB sub-module will occupy 1/3 of an ITER horizontal half-port The back plate coolant supply in addition to collection manifold assembly, incorporating various penetration pipes, flexible supports, in addition to keyways, should be collaboratively designed by partner Parties. A Lead Party takes responsibility as long as fabrication of the back plate in addition to integration of the three sub modules. KO Submodule JA Submodule US Submodule Preliminary discussions occurred among US, Japan, in addition to Korea about a possible partnership on HCCB. US TBM Deliverables: Hardware Ready-to-Ship to ITER by Mar. 31, 2015: A full size, vertical half-port, DCLL test blanket module; A 1/3 size, horizontal half-port HCCB test blanket submodule integrated with a host Partys test module 1.6 m Primary in addition to secondary DCLL helium coolant flow loops A one-third share of the HCCB ancillary systems, including He coolant in addition to purge 5 m 2 m DCLL HCCB Example DCLL He loops in the TCWS Vault A DCLL PbLi coolant flow loop Specifications as long as tritium processing system Example DCLL PbLi loop in port cell transporter container Basic US Technical Plan Flow Basic Properties Single/Multiple Effects Testing Partially-Integrated Mockup Testing Products: Qualified Design – Qualified Fab. Technology – Verified Simulation Cap. Models & Theory Simulation Codes Data/Codes Integration in addition to Benchmarking Progression from basic R&D through single in addition to multiple effects tests (including small in addition to medium scale mockup testing) to fabrication in addition to testing of scaled-mockups in addition to full scale Prototype Evolution of verified predictive capability in concert with experimental program Complete in addition to coupled computer-aided engineering design in addition to safety analyses
R&D tasks directly support TBM design, safety, qualification, in addition to /or operation requirements The ITER TBM qualification in addition to licensing process will be arduous TBMs must not interfere with operation, availability, or safety of ITER acceptance will dem in addition to testing in the H-H phase, as long as which we need to begin preparing now DCLL in addition to HCCB Technical Issues Design, fabrication in addition to qualification of structures with RAFS Integrated response of complex geometry, highly-heterogeneous TBM mockups in ITER-like conditions Robust diagnostics compatible with ITER operating conditions in addition to TBM design in addition to materials Tritium removal, release in addition to permeation He flow distribution in addition to heat transfer characteristics DCLL only Technical Issues Coupled impact of FCI thermal, electrical, in addition to structure properties in addition to design on MHD velocity profiles in addition to operating temperature Fabrication of SiC with desired FCI properties Compatibility of PbLi with materials in addition to reactivity with water HCCB only Technical Issues Thermomechanical behavior of pebble beds in addition to impact on operating temperature Many R&D tasks are highly interactive, in addition to collectively, they provide in as long as mation critical to design, procurement specifications, qualification/acceptance tests, in addition to definition of operating conditions Low primary stress Robust to thermal stress – T ~200C Thermofluid MHD Structural Analysis Effectiveness of FCI as electric/thermal insulator MHD pressure drop in addition to flow distribution MHD flow in addition to FCI property effects on T FCI stresses FCI de as long as mations ITER DT ITER DT: Max stress<45 MPa ITER TBM 3D FCI features MHD Experiments Manifolds UCLA Manifold Flow distribution Experiment (~1m length) Example: Flow Channel Insert (FCI) in DCLL RAFS Fabrication R&D determines detailed material in addition to fabrication specifications Basic Properties Single in addition to Multiple Effects Testing Partially-Integrated Mockup Testing Final Design TBM Fabrication Acceptance Tests Material alloy specification Fabrication procedures Properties - base metal & joints Tolerances FY2007 2008 2009 2010 FabRoute Dec Init R&D Oct Small/Med mockups - Irradiation, - Corrosion, - Thermal/stress R&D needed as long as : Input to design analyses ITER Structural Design Criteria TBM Technical Specification Doc. Vendor Bid Packages as long as prototype in addition to first TBM BidPack Aug R&D activities underway in several critical areas as long as US TBMs Current R&D ef as long as ts: DCLL MHD experiments in addition to simulation manifolds in addition to FCI function SiC materials development in addition to property measurements as long as FCI PbLi/SiC/FS compatibility in addition to LM ingress tests Pebble bed thermomechanics experiments in addition to simulations Initial contacts with US industry regarding initiating RAFS fabrication development R&D in FY07 Possible FCI Material Low Conductivity SiC Foam with dense sealing layer from ULTRAMET Tested with LM at UCLA DCLL MHD numerical simulation of PbLi velocity through a three-channels dividing manifold: left: fully developed MHD flow characteristics at each channel; right: PbLi velocity evolution from the manifold inlet to three parallel channels Velocity vector shows M Shape Velocity, in addition to Vortex Parallel to the magnetic field Current distribution at the outlet shows that the flows here is fully developed UCLAs Experimental Geometry of Manifold Velocity profiles from inlet to outlet The center channel has flow rate 11.8% above the uni as long as m flow, in addition to the side channels have -5.% below the uni as long as m flow. Numerical Simulations of Manifold Heat Transfer in DCLL blanket is strongly affected by fluid flow phenomena, where MHD plays a major role Formation of high-velocity near-wall jets B. 2-D MHD turbulence in flows with M-type velocity profile C. Reduction of turbulence via Joule dissipation D. Natural/mixed convection E. Strong effects of MHD flows in addition to FCI properties on heat transfer =500 =100 =5 Model Development Numerical Simulations Design VTBM Integrated Data/multi-code multi-physics modeling activities, or Virtual TBM, is key as long as ITER TBM R&D activity. The design of a complex system like the ITER TBM requires an exhaustive CAE ef as long as t encompassing multiple simulation codes supporting multi-physics modeling. R&D, Design, Fabrication in addition to Qualification Schedules are linked by Yearly Milestones All activities tied to Milestones The critical path is discerned based on inter-dependencies of tasks In as long as mation from R&D is available in time to support design, fabrication in addition to qualification Testing Tritium Breeding Blankets in ITER is ESSENTIAL to show that fusion has a potential as an energy source ITER TBM will address the following central questions about D-T fusion: Is there a practical blanket compatible with the plasma that can achieve tritium self sufficiency (Is the D-T cycle practical) Can high-grade heat extraction (high efficiency) be realized in the fusion environment ( in addition to reliably in a system inside the plasma vacuum vessel) Without TBM, hence ignoring power extraction in addition to tritium self-sufficiency, the US strategy as long as the long term will have a very big hole invalidating any mid- to long-term strategy to meet an energy goal. The critics of fusion argue that "the time to realize fusion is 40 years away in addition to exp in addition to ing". Not participating in ITER TBM will guarantee that these critiques are right. TBMs are critical to solving the Tritium Supply Issue as long as continued fusion development Successful ITER will exhaust most of the world supply of tritium A fusion reactor consumes tritium at a rate ~100x more than a fission production reactor can produce ITER extended per as long as mance phase in addition to any future long pulse burning plasma will need tritium breeding technology Summary A technical plan as long as US ITER TBM has been developed. The US extensive experience, pioneering development of FNT, in addition to in-depth studies of engineering testing in fusion facilities over the past 35 years allowed the development of a credible in addition to effective technical plan. The combined ef as long as ts of the communitys technical experts in addition to costing in addition to management professionals enabled a reasonably accurate cost estimate which is much more detailed in addition to more comprehensive than that of any other ITER Party. Analysis of the current situation (ITER, international, domestic) dem in addition to s strong US participation in ITER Blanket Testing.
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