OWL Dr. Alex in addition to ra I. Cristea http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/ What is OWL

OWL Dr. Alex in addition to ra I. Cristea http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/ What is OWL www.phwiki.com

OWL Dr. Alex in addition to ra I. Cristea http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/ What is OWL

Campbell, Blair, Contributing Editor and Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal OWL Dr. Alex in addition to ra I. Cristea http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~acristea/ What is OWL W3C Recommendation, February 2004. web st in addition to ard Web Ontology Language built on top of RDF as long as processing in as long as mation on the web designed to be interpreted by computers, not as long as being read by people OWL is written in XML Why OWL OWL is a part of the “Semantic Web Vision” – a future where: Web in as long as mation has exact meaning Web in as long as mation can be processed by computers Computers can integrate in as long as mation from the web OWL was designed to provide a common way to process the content of web in as long as mation (instead of displaying it). be read by computer applications (instead of humans).

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OWL is Different from RDF OWL , RDF similar but OWL stronger language greater machine interpretability larger vocabulary stronger syntax. What is an Ontology as long as mal specification of a certain domain machine manipulable model Ontology is about the exact description of things in addition to their relationships in addition to an inference mechanism as long as it. For the web, ontology is about the exact description of web in as long as mation in addition to relationships between web in as long as mation in addition to reasoning with it. dictionary taxonomy ontology OWL Sublanguages OWL has three sublanguages: OWL Lite hierarchy + simple constraints + cardinality {0,1} OWL DL (includes OWL Lite) complete, decidable (part of FOL) Type separations (class <> property <> individual) OWL DL is the subset of OWL (Full) that is optimized as long as reasoning in addition to knowledge modeling OWL Full (includes OWL DL) aug. meaning RDF

OWL is Written in XML By using XML, OWL in as long as mation can easily be exchanged between different types of computers using different types of operating system in addition to application languages. Oh yes, there is a namespace: (more on) OWL Based on predecessors (DAML+OIL) A Web Language: Based on RDF(S) An Ontology Language: Based on logic OWL Ontologies What’s inside an OWL ontology Classes + class-hierarchy Properties (Slots) / values Relations between classes (inheritance, disjoints, equivalents) Restrictions on properties (type, cardinality) Characteristics of properties (transitive, ) Annotations Individuals Reasoning tasks: classification, consistency checking

OWL Use Cases At least two different user groups OWL used as data exchange language (define interfaces of services in addition to agents) OWL used as long as terminologies or knowledge models OWL Example (Airport) Example: http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~rector/Modules/CS646-2004/Labs/Thursday/Simple-University-01.owl Find the error in the OWL Resource: http://www.daml.org/2001/10/html/airport-ont Validators are: For RDF: http://www.w3.org/RDF/Validator For OWL: http://phoebus.cs.man.ac.uk:9999/OWL/Validator For a tutorial on XML, RDF, SPARQL, OWL see: http://jmvidal.cse.sc.edu/talks/xmlrdfdaml/ Semantic web search engine: http://swoogle.umbc.edu/ Scenario Semantic Web as long as Tourism/Traveling Goal: Find matching holiday destinations as long as a customer I am looking as long as a com as long as table destination with beach access Tourism Web

Scenario Architecture A search problem: Match customer’s expectations with potential destinations Required: Web Service that exploits as long as mal in as long as mation about the available destinations Accommodation (Hotels, B&B, Camping, ) Activities (Sightseeing, Sports, ) Tourism Semantic Web Open World: New hotels are being added New activities are offered Providers publish their services dynamically St in addition to ard as long as mat / grounding is needed Tourism Ontology Tourism Semantic Web OWL Metadata (Individuals) OWL Metadata (Individuals) OWL Metadata (Individuals) OWL Metadata (Individuals) Tourism Ontology Web Services Destination Accomodation Activity

OWL Individuals (e.g., “FourSeasons”) Properties ObjectProperties (references) DatatypeProperties (simple values) Classes (e.g., “Hotel”) Individuals (Instances) Represent objects in the domain Specific things Two names could represent the same “real-world” individual Example of Individuals equivalent to:

ObjectProperties Link two individuals together Relationships (0 n, n m) Example Property Property Domain & Range If a relation is: subject-individual hasProperty object-individual The domain is the class of the subject individual The range is the class of the object individual (or a datatype if hasProperty is a Datatype Property)

Properties, Range in addition to Domain Property characteristics Domain: “left side of relation” (Destination) Range: “right side” (Accomodation) Domains Individuals can only take values of properties that have matching domain “Only Destinations can have Accommodations” Domain can contain multiple classes Domain can be undefined: Property can be used everywhere Property Restriction: Example Cardinality 1 1

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OWL Extends Other Ontologies extend existing ontology by saying things about terms in it: Animals have exactly two parents, ie: If x is an animal, it has exactly 2 parents (but NOT anything that has 2 parents is an animal). If ontology is already published, you use the full URL. Inverse Properties Represent bidirectional relationships Adding a value to one property also adds a value to the inverse property (!) Inverse Property Example

Transitive Properties If A is related to B in addition to B is related to C then A is also related to C Often used as long as part-of relationships Transitive Property Example Sub-properties Example

OWL Conclusion We have learned: OWL definition OWL comparison with RDF OWL classes in addition to properties Usage scenarios

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