Pa Nhia Xiong, MSWCali as long as nia State University, FresnoMay 2015Resiliency Among Hm

Pa Nhia Xiong, MSWCali as long as nia State University, FresnoMay 2015Resiliency Among Hm

Pa Nhia Xiong, MSWCali as long as nia State University, FresnoMay 2015Resiliency Among Hm

Ott, Donna, Contributing Travel Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Pa Nhia Xiong, MSWCali as long as nia State University, FresnoMay 2015Resiliency Among Hmong Women Who Were Teen Mothers Background on Teen Pregnancy & ParentingSocial Problem in societyNegative Statistics & Outcomes High School DropoutsHigher Rates of Juvenile DelinquencySubstance Abuse / Mental Health IssuesPoverty / HomelessnessWelfare DependentsChild Welfare InvolvementThe Cycle of Poverty from generation to generationOccurs between ages 15 – 19 years oldTeen Pregnancy & Parenting DataIn 2012, U.S. Department of Health in addition to Human Services Research:116,212 babies were born in the U.S.Female teenagers 15 -19Asian/Pacific Isl in addition to er Race = 11,981 (10.3%) babies Cali as long as nia Alone – 4,385 babies born to teens of all ethnic groups

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Theoretical FrameworkResiliency TheoryResilience is defined as:“The ability to successfully cope or bounce back regardless of substantial adversity.” (Earvolino-Ramirez, 2007).“The ability to bounce back from adversity; there is hope embedded in adversity in addition to to believe in oneself that something positive will result from mis as long as tunes.” (Dyer & McGuinness, 1996).“The ability to recover from illness, change, or mis as long as tune.” (The American Heritage Dictionary, p. 1534). Theoretical FrameworkThe Strength-Based ApproachOur Clients – stressed, voiceless, oppressed, abused, neglected “To examine in addition to build upon their skills in addition to abilities to survive against great challenges, gain knowledge, access resources, obtain goals, in addition to require desires in life that may contribute to their success.” (Early & GlenMaye, 2000). “It is believed that humans have the capacity to grow, change, in addition to adapt in life.” (Early & GlenMaye, 2000). “Social Workers need to listen, underst in addition to , validate, in addition to honor the clients’ strengths in addition to build upon it.” (Early & GlenMaye, 2000). Theoretical FrameworkSelf-Efficacy Theory“Individuals’ beliefs in the capacity to successfully accomplish given tasks in addition to the impact that self-belief have on motivation in addition to achievement.” (B in addition to ura, 1993; Martin & Dowson, 2009). “Personal self-efficacy is a strong factor in determining how a person thinks, feel, behave, motivate themselves, in addition to how he/she functions in society.” (Schultz, 2014). Academic Self-Efficacy“Individuals who trust their capacities in addition to ef as long as ts are more willing to try harder in addition to put as long as th more ef as long as t toward academic achievement.” (Jamal, 2014)“It is not about the amount of skills that individuals have but it is how they use their existing skills to enhance their future.” (Jamal, 2014).

Empirical LiteratureHmong Women’s Pursuit of Higher Education (Huster, 2012)1990 – 2000 Census Data on Hmong students: 1) HS Graduation Rate – 11% to 27% 2) Bachelor’s Degree – 3% to 12% 3) Master’s Degree – 1.5% 2010 Census Data on Hmong students:Associate/Bachelor’s Degree – 25.9%Master’s Degree – over 3%Hmong women are pursuing/achieving higher education despite academic in addition to personal challenges in America.Empirical LiteratureThe Challenges of Hmong Early Marriages in addition to Cultural Dilemmas (Vang & Her, 2014).The purpose of early marriagesCultural NormsExpectations of Hmong females“Old Mates”Factors that Prevent Hmong Women from Obtaining Higher Education (Vue, 2007).Discrimination/Stereotyping Educational System – Teacher/Student/Classroom Segregation Cultural ChallengesPurposeFill in the gap misin as long as mation about minority teen mothersHighlight resiliency of minority teen mothersEmpower minority teen mothers to have a voice in societyReduce in addition to /or eliminate societal stereotypes about teen mothers

Research QuestionsHow do Hmong teen mothers become resilient against all oddsWhat are the barriers to resiliency among Hmong teen mothersHow does teen motherhood impact in addition to shape Hmong women’s overall quality of lifeResearch Design & MethodsA qualitative research method – Phenomenological FrameworkUtilized a combination of snowball sampling in addition to recruitment flyersNon-structured face-to-face & one-on-one interviews (1-2 hrs)Interviews were audiotapedVoluntary participation – Each received Incentives:A $10 Starbucks Gift cardA copy of the ThesisFindingsDemographics:10 Hmong Females – Fresno CountyMothers be as long as e age 203 Participants – between ages 18-287 Participants – between ages 29-398 were born in the U.S.2 were born in Thail in addition to /Laos10 were culturally marriedEducation levelsFamily Income

ThemesTraditional Family in addition to Cultural ExpectationsThe experiences of Becoming Teen MothersInitial Reaction to 1st PregnancyProving Society WrongChallenges of Being A Teen MotherRole ModelsGoals That Were Put On HoldMost Rewarding Aspects In their LivesWhat Would They Change About Their Life JourneysSupport SystemsHusb in addition to Family Members (Biological in addition to Extended)WICPublic Assistance ProgramsSocial Workers/Job Specialist School DistrictsDiscussionParental & cultural expectationsBalancing traditional Hmong & Western culturesDriving as long as ces & motivationThe American dreamAsian physicians VS other ethnic physiciansHusb in addition to s’ putting their education on holdThe reverse of gender roles within their marriage

Discussion Continued2 Main Barriers to resiliency 1) Lack of financial support & resiliency-based programs 2) Lack of childcare centers on school campusesLimitationsSmall sample size – 10 participantsFresno County residence onlyAll participants were culturally married, no unwed participantHmong women onlyImplications as long as Social Work PracticeMicro LevelCulturally Sensitive Social WorkersMezzo LevelPrograms need to be strength-basedMacro LevelFunding SourcesPolicy ChangesChild Welfare SystemFoster youthsAB12 Family Finding Programs

Recommendations as long as Future ResearchMore research on teen mothers’ positive achievementsMore qualitative research/studiesMore future studies among diverse groups in addition to both genderAdvocate as long as resiliency-based programs as long as teen parents in addition to their childrenPromote resiliency among teen parentsEducate/Reduce/Eliminate stereotypes & discriminationMotivational Quote“Never stop dreaming because once you do, your future stops. Everyday, find the courage to put one foot in front of the other because the road seems bumpy in addition to long but once you’re there it’s worth it.”

Ott, Donna Inland Empire Magazine Contributing Travel Editor

Ott, Donna Contributing Travel Editor

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