Enrico Fermi A Modern Renaissance Man Enrico Fermi, Physicist Early Years Physics in Italy Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

Enrico Fermi A Modern Renaissance Man Enrico Fermi, Physicist Early Years Physics in Italy Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa www.phwiki.com

Enrico Fermi A Modern Renaissance Man Enrico Fermi, Physicist Early Years Physics in Italy Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa

Gray, John, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Enrico Fermi A Modern Renaissance Man Alej in addition to ro Garcia Dept. Physics, SJSU Enrico Fermi, Physicist Fermi was one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. He is best known as long as his leading contributions in the Manhattan Project but his work spanned every field of physics. Early Years In 1901, Enrico was born in Rome to Alberto Fermi, a Chief Inspector of the Ministry of Communications, in addition to Ida de Gattis, an elementary school teacher. As a young boy he enjoyed learning physics in addition to mathematics in addition to shared his interests with his older brother, Giulio. When Giulio died unexpectedly of a throat abscess in 1915 it brought great sorrow to the family in addition to Enrico escaped into his studies.

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Physics in Italy Despite being the birthplace of physics, in the 20th century Italy had slipped behind the other European countries. That all changed with Enrico Fermi. Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Urged by a family friend, Fermi went to Pisa as long as his university studies. His exceptional abilities were recognized by his professors, some of whom received lessons on relativity theory from the young Fermi. Fermi Electron Theory While in Pisa, Fermi in addition to his friends had a well-earned reputation as pranksters. One afternoon, while patiently trapping geckos (used to scare girls at the university), Fermi came up with the fundamental theory as long as electrons in solids. Fermi’s theory later became the foundation of the entire semiconductor industry.

Professor Fermi Thanks to the ef as long as ts of Professor ( in addition to Senator) Orso Mario Corbino, who recognized his talent, Fermi returned to Rome as professor of physics in 1924. Fermi was only 24 years old but was already an internationally known scientist. Via Panisperna Boys In Rome, Fermi (with Corbino’s help) gathered the brightest scientific minds in Italy in his theoretical physics group, known as the “Via Panisperna Boys.” Despite that fact that Enrico was only a few years older, his students (half-jokingly) called him “The Pope” because they considered him infallible. Ettore Majorana Fermi considered his Sicilian student, Ettore Majorana, to be far more brilliant than himself. Majorana’s main fault was that problems were so simple as long as him to solve that he rarely bothered to write down in addition to publish his calculations. Majorana became full professor of theoretical physics in Naples University in 1937 without needing to take examination “ as long as high in addition to well-deserved repute, independently of the competition rules.” A few months afterwards, at the age of 31, Majorana mysteriously disappeared during a boat trip from Palermo to Naples.

Emilio Segrè Born in Tivoli, Segrè enrolled in the University of Rome La Sapienza as an engineering student. He switched to physics in 1927 to work with Fermi. Emilio Segrè, Clyde Wieg in addition to , in addition to Owen Chamberlain examining film measuring the rate of antiproton travel, 1955 While Segrè was visiting Berkeley in 1938, Mussolini’s Fascist government passed anti-Semitic laws barring Jews from university positions, making Segrè an émigré. Segrè in addition to Owen Chamberlain (also Fermi’s student) shared the Nobel Prize as long as their discovery of the anti-proton in 1959. Fermi, Sportsman An avid hiker in addition to tennis player, Fermi showed the same intensity in his sports as in his science. Often he would win his matches by simply outlasting his opponent. Yet Fermi was also known as long as his modesty in addition to would never make much of his achievement. Fermi Problems Fermi was famous as long as being able to avoid long, tedious calculations or difficult experimental measurements by devising ingenious ways of finding approximate answers. He also enjoyed challenging his friends with “Fermi Problems” that could be solved by such “back of the envelope” estimates. Laura in addition to Enrico Fermi

Fermi Problem Example “What is the length of the equator” Fermi problems are solved by assembling simple facts that combine to give the answer: The distance from Los Angeles to New York is about 3000 miles. These cities are three time zones apart. So each time zone is about 1000 miles wide. There are 24 time zones around the world. So the length of the equator must be about 24,000 miles The exact answer is 24,901 miles. From Theory to Experiment In 1934, Fermi learned of the nuclear experiments of Frédéric in addition to Irène Joliot-Curie, he immediately shifted his group’s work from theory to experiment. Nobel Prize In 1938, Fermi won the Nobel Prize in Physics as long as “demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, in addition to as long as his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”.

Emigration to America After receiving the Nobel prize in Stockholm, Fermi in addition to his family emigrated to New York, mainly because of the fascist regime’s anti-Semitic laws, threatened his wife Laura, who was of Jewish descent. World War In 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Pol in addition to , igniting World War II. The United States, initially neutral, was drawn in after Pearl Harbor is attacked in December 1941. Einstein’s Letter to Roosevelt On August 2nd 1939, encouraged by a group of fellow physicists, the world’s most famous scientist, Albert Einstein, writes a historic letter to President Roosevelt.

Nuclear Fission The bombardment of uranium by neutrons was first studied by Enrico Fermi but the results were not fully understood at the time. After Fermi’s publication, Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn in addition to Fritz Strassmann began per as long as ming similar experiments in Germany. In 1939, they discovered that the uranium nucleus split (fission) under neutron bombardment, releasing nuclear energy.

Chain Reaction Nuclear chain reactions had been as long as eseen as early as 1933 by Leo Szilard, although Szilard at that time had no idea with what materials the process might be initiated. Fermi in addition to Szilard proposed the idea of a nuclear reactor (pile) with natural uranium as fuel in addition to graphite as moderator of neutron energy. Chicago Pile-1 Fermi led the construction of Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1) , the world’s first nuclear reactor. Due to a construction labor strike, he built it inside a squash court at the University of Chicago. The first artificial, self-sustaining, nuclear chain reaction was initiated within CP-1, on Dec. 2, 1942. Manhattan Project CP-1 demonstrated that nuclear energy was not just a theoretical possibility but an experimental fact. At that point, enormous resources were poured into the Manhattan Project in an ef as long as t to produce the atomic bomb, a decisive weapon to end the war.

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Nuclear Physics in Nazi Germany The Nazi reactor ef as long as t had been severely h in addition to icapped by the German physicists belief that heavy water was necessary as a neutron moderator. The Germans were short of heavy water because of Allied ef as long as ts to prevent Germany from obtaining it in addition to they never stumbled on the secret of using purified graphite instead. Nazi German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch Post-War Work In his later years, Fermi did important work in particle physics, especially related to pions in addition to muons. He was also known to be an inspiring teacher at the University of Chicago. His lecture notes were transcribed into books in addition to are still used today. Fermi’s Last Years Fermi died at age 53 of stomach cancer; two of his assistants working on or near the nuclear pile also died of cancer. Fermi in addition to his team knew that their work carried considerable risk but they considered the outcome so vital that they as long as ged ahead with little regard as long as their own personal safety.

Fermilab Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), located in Batavia near Chicago, is a Department of Energy national laboratory specializing in high-energy particle physics. Fermilab’s Tevatron particle accelerator, four miles in circumference, is the world’s highest energy particle accelerator. The Fermi Paradox The extreme age of the universe in addition to its vast number of stars suggest that if the Earth is typical, extraterrestrial life should be common. Discussing this proposition with colleagues over lunch in 1950, Fermi asked: “Where is everybody” We still don’t have a good answer to Enrico’s question.

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LCLS Drive Laser Shaping Experiments A. Brachmann, R. Coffee, D. Reis, D. Dowell

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LCLS Drive Laser Shaping Experiments A. Brachmann, R. Coffee, D. Reis, D. Dowell

Erdos, Irv, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal LCLS Drive Laser Shaping Experiments A. Brachmann, R. Coffee, D. Reis, D. Dowell And the LCLS Physics Team SLAC National Accelerator Lab FEL09 Conference Liverpool, Engl in addition to August 2009 Description of the LCLS Injector in addition to the Experiment Experimental Results Heuristic Model of the Emittance Growth Summary & Conclusions The LCLS Injector with Diagnostics Location of Injector Diagnostics Projected emittance at 1 nC Nominal Operating Parameters Gain Length & Extraction Measurements ~1.5 km The Seven Laser Shapes

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Summary of Experimental Results The Gain Length vs. Emittance The emittances were measured at 250 pC in addition to 135 MeV. The FEL gain lengths are as long as lasing at 1.5 Angstroms with an electron beam energy of 13.63 GeV. Radial electric field outside the tube/beamlet of charge: Basic Assumptions of Model Charge is distributed in a regular array of tubes, beamlets. Beamlets see radial space charge as long as ce until they overlap. After overlapping the sc- as long as ce becomes small, the electrons are left with radial velocity which becomes emittance. Beam consists of a rectangular array of beamlets, each driven outward by their radial space charge as long as ce Integrate to get energy gain of electron at radial edge of beamlet: Gives the emittance due to the rectangular array of beamlets: A Simple Model as long as the Emittance Growth

For 180 mesh, the emittance will be 180/50= 3.6 times smaller: Simple Model Compared to the Expt. Projected Emittance (microns) 1.8 Nominal Emittance GPT Simulation Shows Beamlet Expansion in Early Life of the Beam Bagel Laser Shape 50 Mesh Laser Shape GPT: General Particle Tracer, Pulsar Physics, www.pulsar.nl Summary in addition to Conclusions Measured Emittance in addition to FEL Per as long as mance at 1.5 A as long as rectangular grid in addition to radial symmetric laser transverse shapes. Found most uni as long as m shape gives the lowest emittance in addition to shortest gain length. Derived model as long as emittance growth based on radial expansion of beamlets driven by space charge as long as ce. Using this model, derived relation as long as emittance due to regular rectangular pattern. Reasonable agreement with measurements. Model can be extended to other radial shapes. Comparison with GPT simulation indicates most growth occurs during expansion during ~10s of ps. Particle tracking simulations using GPT are in progress.

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IBS suppression lattice in RHIC: theory in addition to experimental verification A. Fedotov

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IBS suppression lattice in RHIC: theory in addition to experimental verification A. Fedotov

Cooper, Cord, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal IBS suppression lattice in RHIC: theory in addition to experimental verification A. Fedotov, M. Bai, D. Bruno, P. Cameron, R. Connolly, J. Cupolo, A. Della Penna, A. Drees, W. Fischer, G. Ganetis, L. Hoff, V. Litvinenko, W. Louie, Y. Luo, N. Malitsky, G. Marr, A. Marusic, C. Montag, V. Ptitsyn, T. Satogata, S. Tepikian, D. Trbojevic, N. Tsoupas August 25-29, 2008 HB2008 Workshop, Nashville, Tennessee Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL Outline IBS in RHIC Development of IBS-suppression lattice IBS models/simulations Dedicated IBS measurements Comparison of simulations in addition to measurements RHIC per as long as mance as long as Au ions luminosity loss intensity loss 2004 run 2007 run (with longitudinal stochastic cooling in Yellow ring) Per as long as mance of RHIC collider with Au ions is limited by the process of Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS).

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IBS in RHIC ( as long as g >> gtr) 1. For energies much higher than transition energy Intra-beam Coulomb scattering (IBS) is dominated by heating of longitudinal degree of freedom. Additional heating: 2. At regions with non-zero dispersion, changes in longitudinal momentum change particle reference orbits, which additionally excites horizontal betatron motion. 3. Horizontal heating is shared between horizontal in addition to vertical planes due to x-y coupling. For the case of full coupling, transverse heating is equally shared between x in addition to y. Reducing this function allows to reduce transverse IBS rate – idea behind “IBS-suppression” lattice. Approximate longitudinal IBS diffusion rate: @g=107; gt=23 Reduction of transverse IBS RHIC lattice consists of 6 insertions (IP regions), where H-function is very low in addition to 6 arcs with regular FODO cells. As a result, dominant contribution into transverse IBS comes from the arcs. The H-function can be reduced by increasing phase advance per cell. The 2004 RHIC lattice had 82° phase advance per cell. Layout of RHIC collider: The collider is composed of 2 identical non-circular rings oriented to intersect with one another at 6 crossing points. Each arc is composed of 11 FODO cells. Lattice functions as long as arc cell RHIC Design Manual

Reduction of the IBS rate Qx/cell IBS(0.22)/ IBS(Qx) Starting (Run-4) operating point NOTE: Qx are tune advances per FODO cell Qy = (0.9 or 1 or 1.1) Qy 90o 108o 72o 126o 144o Run-8 operating point V.N. Litvinenko (2004) Future plan Stronger focusing in addition to limits When built, RHIC was already the collider with the shortest in addition to strongest focusing FODO cell of all the hadron machines. The most important consideration in this regard was Intra-beam Scattering. However, as long as the beam parameters in addition to machine per as long as mance in 2004, operational lattice with 82° phase advance appeared to be not fully optimized with respect to IBS growth in addition to thus maximum luminosity. There as long as e, it was suggested to explore RHIC per as long as mance with higher phase advance per cell. Practical range of achievable phase advances per cell is determined by existing feeding system as long as RHIC superconducting magnets which have multiple inter-connections in addition to current limits imposed by feeders in addition to power supplies. As well as interplay with other effects. It was decided to start with the test “IBS-suppression” lattice with 92° horizontal phase advance per cell. Test IBS lattice (2005) as long as APEX experiments Dispersion function as long as RHIC-4 lattice (82° phase advance) Dispersion function as long as test IBS lattice (92° phase advance) lattice development by S. Tepikian

2005 predictions as long as IBS APEX experiment with the test lattice (simulations using BETACOOL code: rms unnormalized emittance growth as long as 82° in addition to 92° lattice, Cu ions @100 GeV/n) t-1rhic-4/t-192=30% reduction in transverse IBS emittance growth rate 82° lattice 92° lattice History of IBS-lattice development 2004 – IBS suppression lattice proposed. It was decided to start with incremental increase of phase advance per cell (92° as long as the first test). 2005 – development of IBS lattice as long as Cu ions during Accelerator Physics EXperiments (APEX). The progress with ramp development was marginal – the main problems were related to the tune swings during the ramp. Measurements @31GeV/n in addition to some puzzles. 2006 – no experiments, since the run was with polarized protons. 2007 – progress with tune in addition to coupling feed-back dramatically speed-up development of the ramps. Effect of IBS suppression lattice on transverse emittance growth was directly measured during APEX in June 2007. 2008 – as long as d-Au run, IBS lattice was implemented as operational lattice as long as Au ions in Yellow ring. Dedicated measurements of IBS in RHIC To ensure accurate benchmarking, collisions were turned off. In addition, h=360 rf system was used to avoid loss of particles from the bucket. Six bunches of different intensity with different initial emittance were injected, which allowed us to test expected scaling with intensity in addition to emittance. Measurements of the bunch length were done using Wall Current Monitor (WCM). Measurements of the horizontal in addition to vertical emittance in each individual bunch were done using Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). 2004 – with Au ions 2005 – with Cu ions 2007 – Au ions with IBS-suppression lattice 2008 – Au ions with operational IBS-suppression lattice For accurate comparison of measurements with simulations, IBS studies in RHIC were per as long as med in dedicated beam mode under APEX.

IBS models in BETACOOL code (JINR, Dubna, Russia) – Gaussian distributions I. Analytic models as long as Gaussian distribution: Piwinski’s model Martini’s model (including derivatives of lattice functions) Bjorken-Mtingwa’s model (including vertical dispersion) Wei’s, Parzen’s models (high-energy approximation) Gas-relaxation model (high-energy approximation) For comparison with experimental measurements in RHIC at 100 GeV/n, we use Martini’s or Bjorken-Mtingwa’s models (which give the same results as long as RHIC parameters). IBS models in BETACOOL – non-Gaussian distributions (mostly relevant to distributions under e-cooling) II. IBS as long as non-Gaussian distributions. In situations when distribution can strongly deviate from Gaussian, as as long as example under effect of Electron Cooling, it was necessary to develop IBS models based on the amplitude dependent diffusion coefficients. Several models were developed: -“Detailed” (Burov): analytic expression as long as longitudinal coefficient as long as Gaussian distribution with longitudinal temperature much smaller than transverse in addition to smooth lattice approximation. -“bi-Gaussian” (Parzen): rms rates as long as bi-Gaussian distribution; all particles are kicked based on the rms rate expression. -“Core-tail”: different diffusion coefficients as long as particle in the core in addition to tails of the distribution. -“Kinetic model” – “Local diffusion” – algorithm is based as long as numerical evaluation of amplitude dependent diffusion coefficients in 3-D. Allows to simulate evolution of arbitrary distribution due to IBS (implemented in BETACOOL in 2007). IBS in RHIC – measurements vs. theory Example of 2005 data with Cu ions (82°/cell phase advance) Simulations (BETACOOL) – Martini’s model of IBS as long as exact designed lattice of RHIC (82°/cell), including derivatives of the lattice functions. Growth of 95% normalized emittance [mm] as long as bunch with intensity N=2.9·109 horizontal vertical Emittance measurements were done with Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). [sec] [mm mrad]

Simulations vs. Measurements; Cu ions, APEX 2005 (82°/cell phase advance lattice; 100 GeV/n) FWHM [ns] bunch length growth as long as intensities N=2.9·109 in addition to 1.4·109. Growth of 95% normalized horizontal emittance [mm] as long as two bunch intensities N=2.9·109 (upper curve) in addition to 1.4·109. Dash lines – simulations; solid lines – measurements. Two bunches with different intensity. N=2.9109 N=1.4109 [ns] [sec] [sec] [mm] IPM measurements of transverse emittance (June 2007, APEX data as long as Au ions @100 GeV/nucleon) Au ions at 100 GeV/n (June 2007, APEX data) (Blue ring: normal lattice with 82° phase advance per cell; Yellow ring: IBS lattice with 92° phase advance) in Yellow in Blue in Blue in Yellow bunch intensities bunch length emittance in Blue in Yellow We had 6 bunches in each ring. Only 3 bunches per ring are shown.

IBS suppression lattice APEX experiment – June 2007 (V. Litvinenko et al.) Conclusions Transverse IBS emittance growth is suppressed by 30±10% January 9, 2008 APEX measurements, using operational Run-8 IBS lattice (95° phase advance) in Yellow ring Goal of the experiment: To underst in addition to what portion of vertical emittance growth comes from x-y coupling. Quantitative underst in addition to ing of emittance growth in horizontal in addition to vertical planes should help us to conclude whether single-plane transverse stochastic cooling will be sufficient to counteract both horizontal in addition to vertical emittance growth. Measurements (at g=107): 1. Decoupled case: dQmin=0.001, tunes were separated by 0.018 2. Fully coupled case: dQmin=0.018, tunes were separated by 0.018 Model & measured dispersion

Au ions at 100 GeV/n (January 2008, APEX data) (Yellow ring: operational IBS lattice with 95° phase advance) coupled case data Longitudinal bunch length growth due to IBS (simulations vs. measurement, bucket 121) red – measurement blue – simulation 95°/cell phase advance lattice Fully coupled case (January 9, 2008 APEX data): Horizontal emittance growth (simulation vs. measurement, bucket 121) red – Horizontal emittance (measurement) blue – expected (simulation) with Run-7 lattice (82°/cell) green – expected (simulation) as long as Run-8 “IBS-suppression” lattice (95°/cell) For simulations with 82° in addition to 95° lattice, longitudinal beam parameters (momentum spread in addition to bunch length) were chosen the same. Reduction in horizontal IBS emittance growth rate, as predicted.

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IBS lattice summary Clear advantages: reduced transverse emittance growth – confirmed by dedicated beam experiments increased RF bucket area, due to higher gt (by 13%) –better rebucketing shorter bunch length – better vertex luminosity Additional advantages: – helps to achieve lower b due to slower emittance growth – more relaxed PS current at the beta squeeze Concerns: – new lattice, more time as long as development – no problem in Run-8. – higher main quad current (reliability issue) – seems not a problem in Run-8. – nonlinear characteristics of the lattice, the dynamic aperture in addition to its possible effects on beam lifetime – to be explored in simulations Conclusions, future plans Already developed lattice (95° phase advanced per cell) has expected 30% reduction in transverse IBS emittance growth rate. Significant improvement in integrated & vertex luminosity is expected. Use 95° lattice in both Blue in addition to Yellow rings during next RHIC run with Au-Au. Push b down to 0.5m with 95° lattices. Develop lattice even with higher phase advance per cell. The lattice with 107° is presently under development. Test/develop this new lattice during next APEX experiments with heavy ions. Acknowledgements Development in addition to implementation of RHIC lattice with higher phase advance per cell became possible as a result of dedicated work of large group of people at Collider-Accelerator Department. We are grateful to I. Ben-Zvi, D. Kayran, G. Parzen, T. Roser in addition to J. Wei as long as many useful discussions on this subject. We used BETACOOL code developed at JINR, Dubna, Russia. Thank you

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MEG DCH Analysis MEG Review Meeting 17 February 2010 W. Molzon For the DCH Analy

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MEG DCH Analysis MEG Review Meeting 17 February 2010 W. Molzon For the DCH Analy

Brooks, Kenneth, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal MEG DCH Analysis MEG Review Meeting 17 February 2010 W. Molzon For the DCH Analysis Working Group Outline Goals of DC analysis Overview of calibrations in addition to analysis Low level per as long as mance: show some results, still improving resolutions Efficiency Rf resolution Z resolution High level resolutions: show some results, still improving resolutions in addition to our measurements of the resolutions Momentum Track angle at target Position at target Demonstrated per as long as mance vs. proposal per as long as mance vs. current MC Prospects as long as improvement Hardware Software Goals of DCh Analysis Optimize per as long as mance of spectrometer Best low level resolutions: R-f, Z, efficiency, noise rejection Best high level resolutions: positron energy, trajectory Determine hardware limitations in addition to possible improvements Noise, alignment, stability Characterize per as long as mance as long as purpose of physics analysis PDFs as long as likelihood analysis Optimize power of physics analysis Selection criteria vs. efficiency

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Positron Spectrometer Impact on MEG Per as long as mance Select on positron energy within interval near 52.8 MeV For fixed meg acceptance, BG/S proportional to dp (MEG prediction sRMS=180 keV/c) Select on qeg near p For fixed acceptance, BG/S proportional to df x dq (MEG prediction sRMS = 8×8 mrad2) photon position resolution ~ 4 mm sRMS ~6 mrad both f in addition to q Track fitting angle uncertainty 4-5 (7) mrad each Position of stopping target: uncertainty 0.5 mm ~6 mrad f Project to target in addition to timing counter in addition to correct te as long as propagation delay For fixed acceptance, BG/S proportional to dt (MEG prediction sRMS = 64 ps, ~2 cm) Path-length projection to target has negligible uncertainty Uncertainty in path-length projection to timing counter dominated by scattering in addition to E loss after spectrometer Improvements needed to incorporate position at timing counter in addition to material between spectrometer in addition to timing counter into trajectory fit For all effects, tails in resolution function loss of acceptance proportional to integral in tail, small increase in background because source of background is uni as long as m DC Per as long as mance 2009 vs. 2008 Significantly improved per as long as mance this year Hit in plane near track projection Hit in plane assigned to track Significant Improvements in Tracking Analysis Incorporated use of TIC time as long as track time Alternative to use of track time deduced from DCH itself Necessary last year due to inefficient chambers Track time from DC itself now much improved per as long as mance Much better algorithms as long as selecting/removing appropriate hits on track Significantly improves resolution in addition to efficiency Re-optimize this year as long as better quality data Better underst in addition to ing of merging of multi-turn tracks Developed technique as long as measuring resolutions using two-turn tracks Fit each turn of a two turn track Project each turn to common point of closest approach to spectrometer axis between two turns – one projected as long as ward, one backward Measure difference in q, f, R, z, p in addition to infer resolution in these quantities Improved fit to Michel edge to extract momentum resolution Better underst in addition to ing of chamber per as long as mance, contributions to resolution Work done on cross-checks of calibration Work on cross-check of alignment using cosmic-ray muons Better underst in addition to ing of relating measurable resolutions to kinematic resolution

DCH Alignment Primary alignment of chambers from optical survey Correct chamber displacements by minimizing mean residuals to fitted tracks using Michel data Residual chamber rotations after optical survey are negligible: no corrections Mean residuals reduced from ~100 mm to 10-20 mm Compare to typical resolutions: Position resolutions sR ~200 mm; sZ ~1000 mm; Chamber-to-chamber scattering deviation ~500 mm CR data recorded with field off as long as cross-check of alignment Different drift per as long as mance without magnetic field Possibility of getting higher momentum tracks with less scattering Remove possibility of correlated DC shifts being missed due to momentum fit Plot of rotation diagnostic Quality of Baseline Prediction Charge on anodes in addition to pads used as long as Z measurement Baseline subtracted by measuring level early in wave as long as m, subtracting average value Shown to be superior to linear, quadratic extrapolation Bin to bin pedestal fluctuations larger in 2009 data vs. 2008 data Precision of prediction of baseline in signal integration affects position resolution Histogram difference in predicted baseline in addition to average baseline in 50 ns signal region Measured on pedestal runs simultaneous with recent MEG data Contribution to Z resolution Depends on both the precision of the baseline in addition to the size of measured charge Increased HV in 2009 gives 40-50% increase in mean hit charge wrt 2008 Error in Z due to baseline fluctuation calculated as long as every hit Contribution of sz ~ 550 mm in 2009 compared to sz ~ 1 mm in 2008 Drift Per as long as mance in addition to Calibration Alignment of time offsets wire by wire Fit to leading edge of distribution of thit – ttrack as long as each end of each wire Check procedure by comparing hit time at 2 ends Typical precision of 1.5 ns Verification of time to position relationship HV in addition to B dependent drift using GARFIELD Incorporate asymmetric response at edge cells Project track from hits in planes 0,1 to common point – measure residual Alternative measurement of resolution from residual of hit to fitted track Measure dependence of residuals on track angles, drift time to verify drift model Typical single plane resolution 250 mm Some systematic effects with angle in 2008 data, being studied again in 2009 data dR Fitted track shape tied to hits

Z Coordinate Measurement Determined first from charge division on anode – calibrated by using know phase in addition to periodicity of cathode pads vs. Z measured by anodes Primarily used to determine correct cycle of cathode pad Does not enter directly into precision of Z determination; used when pad signals missing Precise Z determination from charge induced on pads Pattern of induced charge studied with image charge method – impact on calibration Dependence on wire-cathode distance, offsets of wire with respect to center of pattern (in the wire plane), fluctuations of mean Z coordinate of ionization sites Optimization of technique as long as measuring charge (integration time, etc.) potentially important Noise contribution to charge is largest known source of error in Z determination St in addition to ard integration in addition to charge calibration + two alternative methods studied Preliminary results of alternatives give essentially same per as long as mance Show plot of fit to sine wave Cathode Pad Calibration: Z Determination Reminder Z = n(5 cm) + 5/(2p)(arctan(Ahood/Acathode)+fh(c) A = (Qu-Qd)/(Qu+Qd); Qu(d)= a+bsin(2pz/5+fu(d)) a,b depend on pad-anode distance Precision of dependence of A on z studied with electrostatic calculation – correct to good approximation Steps in Z calibration Correctly align time offsets in pads vs. anodes: integrate same part of signal Adjust time offsets on pad signals to set the mean value of the difference in the time of the pad in addition to anode to zero Correct as long as relative upstream-downstream gains: Adjust gain to get the mean asymmetry in the cathode in addition to pad as long as each were equal to zero Correct as long as effect of chamber foil bowing Both the induced charge in addition to the asymmetry depend on the anode-cathode distance Measure Qcathode/Qanode vs. z as long as each wire – fit to quadratic dependence on Z Apply phenomenological correction to each asymmetry depending on mean induced charge as long as that wire in addition to Z Bowing correction is ~200 mm in quadrature Some Details on Chamber Bowing Distance of hood in addition to cathode from anode wire effected by bowing due to gas pressure, foil mass, possibly details of how foils are fixed to frames Electrostatic calculations show effects >10% on induced charge as long as deflections of order 0.5 mm Measure the ratio of hood to cathode asymmetry amplitude (amplitude of sine wave) by measuring RMS in each 5 cm interval in Z along the wire Measure the ratio of the hood to cathode charge vs. Z Make scatter plot of asymmetry amplitude ratio to charge ratio – agrees with linear correlation predicted by electrostatic calculation Expect biggest effects in center of chamber, where bowing is largest, some different dependence on Z, particularly as long as first in addition to last cell

Pad Crosstalk from Adjacent Anodes Effect of charge induced by hits on adjacent wires Consider hits at same Z in two adjacent wires in same plane, indicated by circles in figure below. Charge induced on pads due to anode charge in same cell will have asymmetry zero Charge induced on pads due to anode charge in other cell will have asymmetry different from zero; in the example shown, more charge on DH as long as top pads, more on UH as long as bottom pads Only relevant as long as in-time hits: short integration time helps Effect tends to cancel when 2 hits averaged, cancellation not exact, particularly when pulse heights are different Charge induced on adjacent cell is not trivial (as much as 7-15%) When Z of two hits is different ( as long as large Z), effect will be different in addition to perhaps larger Contributions to Z Coordinate Uncertainty Measuring High Level Resolutions Need PDFs as long as likelihood fits or acceptances as long as a cut in addition to count analysis For the positron, these have contributions from: Momentum response function – no fixed momentum calibration line Positron angles (q in addition to f) at the target – no fixed direction events Positron intercept at the target – contribution to the photon angle measurement Response functions not expected to be Gaussian distributions Resolutions will depend on, as long as example, track length, pitch angle, etc. For momentum, can fit to the edge of the Michel spectrum Sensitive to only the high energy side of the response function, the important one Lower energy side strongly correlated with momentum dependence of acceptance For momentum in addition to angles, can exploit tracks that have two full turns in the spectrometer, comparing momenta in addition to angles at a common point near the axis to infer the resolution For momentum, cannot determine separately the upper in addition to lower edges, must assume it is symmetrical. Complementary to fit to Michel edge For q, possible systematic differences from dependence on Z For f, technique excludes contribution from effect of uncertainty in path length in projecting back to target: 1 mm error in path length is about 7 mrad error in f All resolution functions should be measured after perfecting low level per as long as mance in addition to optimizing selection criteria (not yet done) Results are likely to improve with analysis

Momentum Resolution Fit to Michel edge Fit function is sum of offset Gaussians Fit results depend on acceptance function in addition to dataset: Michel, low intensity, MEG sideb in addition to s Sample fit to 2009 data be as long as e DRS correction: RMS as long as -1.5< dE <1.5 = 0.580 MeV Alternative measurement from 2 turn comparison Single Gaussian fit: RMS = 0.490 MeV Fit to convolution of sum of 2 Gaussians: RMS in region -1.5 < dE < 1.5 = 0.447 MeV Third possibility to use Mott scattering of mono-energetic electron beam scattered into spectrometer to characterize momentum resolution De-convolve energy spread in beam, energy loss dispersion in thick scattering target Angle in addition to Vertex Position Resolutions Use technique of two-turn tracks to project to common point near spectrometer axis Theta angle resolution Reasonably well fit by Gaussian: sRMS of q = 12.7 mrad Z position resolution Well fit by Gaussian: sRMS of z = 3.1 mm Roughly consistent with contribution from scattering Phi angle resolution Well fit by Gaussian: sRMS of f = 8.1 mrad Error is correlated with momentum error R position resolution Well fit by Gaussian: sRMS of R = 2.4 mm Correspondence Between Resolutions at Target in addition to 2-Turn Comparison Can use MC to get correspondence between z position resolution in addition to positron q resolution For perfect z resolution, q resolution is 7 mrad Expect ~9 mrad resolution as long as current Z resolution Can also use MC to calculate correspondence between resolutions inferred from comparisons of 2 turns to the resolution at the target Plot s(q1 - q2)/2 vs. s(qmeas-qtrue) parametric in sz Current resolution in q1 - q2 corresponds to about 10.5 mrad q resolution Two avenues as long as improvement Improve Z resolution Underst in addition to in addition to fix lack of agreement between measured q resolution in addition to that predicted as long as current Z resolution MC dq vs. dZ MC dq2turn vs. dqtgt Correlation of Momentum in addition to Quality Measures Events with p>52.8 MeV/c represent poorly measured tracks; is there a correlation with track properties Width of central part of momentum resolution function most important as long as physics background estimate Tails in positron momentum resolution function less important; few low momentum positrons satisfy trigger, hence few low momentum positrons can contribute to accidental background. Can We Estimate Tracking Efficiency from Data Use highly pre-scaled timing counter trigger data ~ 520 C total live protons on target 1.31 x 107 m/s/mA (assume livetime same as long as MEG, other triggers) Implies ~ 683 x 1010 total muon stops Nmenn = 1935 muons satisfying selection criteria counted = 6.83×1012 muon stops calculated ( few percent uncertainty ) X 10-7 prescale factor known X 0.35 TIC acceptance x efficiency as long as Michel measured X 0.101 fraction of Michel spectrum > 50 MeV calculated X (0.92-1.0) conditional trigger efficiency as long as TIC measured X 0.091 Michel geometric acceptance X eDCH drift chamber reconstruction & cuts unknown eDCH = 1935 x 107 / 0.35 / 0.101 / 0.96 / 0.091 / (6.83×1012) = 0.92 Need to redo TIC efficiency measurement as long as 2009 Conclusions Tracking efficiency in 2009 data is much better due to improved chamber per as long as mance. Intrinsic resolutions are improved wrt last year’s data Current status is really a lower limit on per as long as mance Central part of Rf resolution is close to expectations, but tails are more than originally anticipated Z resolution worse than planned in addition to not fully understood from calculated contributions, but now not a dominant contribution to angular resolution Angle resolutions better understood, still work to be done Should get better agreement with MC when measured low-level resolutions are used Incorporate cell dependences in resolutions Underst in addition to contribution to f resolution from momentum error resulting in error in path-length to target

Conclusions Prospects as long as improvement Still early in optimization of even low level per as long as mance Fitting as long as improved baseline subtraction (noise filtering – some indications of possible improvements) Drift time-distance model verification Anode to adjacent pad crosstalk corrections Re-optimization of integration time with fully calibrated system Correction of edge effects (near wire ends) in Z determination Some possible software improvements ( preliminary results show little improvement ) Alternative alignment Alternative integration scheme High level improvements Incorporating partial turns in fitting Improved projection to TIC using TIC signal Incorporating track time as parameter in fitting Underst in addition to ing of 1-2 mm offset in magnet vs. spectrometer Hardware changes Reduction of noise at hardware level Additional measurements of resolution with Mott scattering

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VHF Reception Panel Topics Background- Television B in addition to s Background – Channel Width in addition to Fractional B in addition to width Background – Antenna Fundamentals

VHF Reception Panel Topics Background- Television B in addition to s Background – Channel Width in addition to Fractional B in addition to width Background – Antenna Fundamentals www.phwiki.com

VHF Reception Panel Topics Background- Television B in addition to s Background – Channel Width in addition to Fractional B in addition to width Background – Antenna Fundamentals

Bergholdt, Brad, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal VHF Reception Panel William Belt, Consumer Electronics Association Greg Best, Greg Best Consulting Charles Cooper, duTreil, Lundin in addition to Rackley Kerry Cozad, Dielectric Communications Ross Heide, Cohen, Dippell in addition to Everist Ralph Hogan, Society of Broadcast Engineers Jeff Johnson, Gannett Dave Young, Antennas Direct Victor Tawil, MSTV Kelly Williams, NAB Topics Background/Fundamentals Channel in addition to b in addition to width Antennas Transmitters RF environment VHF reception problems Response to FCC questions General observations Background- Television B in addition to s Low VHF (channels 2 to 6) Frequency: 54 to 88 MHz Wavelength: 5.55 to 3.41 meters (18.2 to 11.19 feet) High VHF (channels 7 to 13) Frequency: 174 to 216 MHz Wavelength: 1.72 to 1.39 meters (5.64 to 4.56 feet) VHF BROADCAST FREQUENCY BAND PLAN

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Background – Channel Width in addition to Fractional B in addition to width DTV Channel Width = 6 MHz Fractional B in addition to width = ratio of channel width to center frequency Low VHF Channel 2 FB = 10.5% VHF Channel 6 FB = 7.1% High VHF Channel 13 FB = 2.8% Difficult to maintain uni as long as m amplitude in addition to linear phase across channel Problematic with compact receive antennas (electrically short antenna) Background – Antenna Fundamentals Size Inversely proportional to frequency Antennas are generally inefficient when less than resonant size (electrically short) Impedance B in addition to width (VSWR) Range of frequencies over which the antenna is impedance matched to transmission line VSWR < 3:1 desirable as long as receive antennas Electrically compact antennas have higher VSWR in addition to either narrow impedance b in addition to width or low efficiency Background – Antenna Fundamentals Directivity in addition to Gain Measure ability of antenna to focus energy in a particular direction as compared to a reference dipole antenna Its possible to have high directivity (good focusing) but poor per as long as mance due to mismatch Transmitting Antenna Design Considerations B in addition to Radiator Type Azimuth Pattern Elevation Pattern Polarization Ch 10 TF-12 Gain ~ 12x Ch 5 TF-6 Gain ~ 6x Ch 20 TFU-30 Gain ~ 26x Antenna Length Comparison 72.9 ft 83.0 ft 60.9 ft High B in addition to VHF 6 Bay Panel Antenna 30.9 ft Typical VHF Antenna Parameters For panel antennas, weight of support tower not included Optimum tower face size as long as panels: L: 10.5 ft; M: 9.2 ft; H: 3.4 ft Background – Consumer Antenna Consumers avoid large antennas due to aesthetic reasons in addition to Code in addition to Covenant Restriction/Deed Restrictions Few Low VHF stations, no consumer dem in addition to No retail option due to revenue density requirements, return rates, shipping costs Multiple televisions in different rooms pose additional problems Background – Smart Antennas CEA909 / 909B Smart Antenna st in addition to ard channel, direction, gain, polarization sent from receiver to enabled antenna Most applicable to single set indoors Does NOT solve Low VHF size issue! Market penetration limited to coupon boxes only in addition to those were flawed! No market potential until enhanced in addition to included in flat panel DTVs Background - VHF Transmitters VHF Transmitters Median licensed L-VHF Transmitter Power Output: 2.4 kW Effective Radiated Power: 7.25 kW Median Licensed H-VHF Transmitter Power Output: 2.7 kW Effective Radiated Power: 19.75 kW Background – VHF Transmitters To improve Low VHF reception by 20 dB would be impractical Would need to increase the TPO to 240 kW Over 20 cabinets using liquid cooled transmitters would be needed AC to RF efficiency of around 20% To improve High-VHF Improvement of 10 dB would be doable, but difficult Would need to increase TPO to 27 kW 3 cabinets using liquid cooler transmitter AC to RF efficiency of approximately 20% Background - VHF Station Statistics Few Stations Operate in Low VHF 39 full power stations 2% of all DTV Stations Operate in Low VHF Significant Number of Stations in High VHF 425 Stations 25% of all DTV Stations Operate in High VHF Since transition, 16 stations have received authorization to move to UHF channel Low VHF Environment Evidence suggest Low-B in addition to VHF has reception issues using indoor in addition to outdoor type receiving antennas Reception previously possible with analog facility on same RF channel DTV Reception Issues Man-Made Electrical Noise Atmospheric Noise Inefficient Receiving Antenna Transmit Power Increase to reduce the significance of these issues is 15 to 20 dB Impulse Noise (ch. 6) 75 MHz 85 MHz 95 MHz 10 dB/div References Technical Papers in addition to Report “Reasons Channels 2 through 6 Are Not Commercially Viable as long as DTV,” R. Evans Wetmore, P.E., Fox Technology Group, October 4, 2004 “Impact of Impulse Noise on DTV Reception at Low VHF,” Victor Tawil, Charles W. Einolf “8-VSB/COFDM Comparison -Washington, Baltimore in addition to Cincinnati.” NAB/MSTV Report January 2001 Book by Edward Skomal, Man-made Noise, Van Nostr in addition to , 1972 Articles by G. Hagn, A.D Spaulding, D. Middleton, W.R Lauber & J.M Bertr in addition to on Man-made Noise Books by A. U. H. Sheikh on Man-made noise, 1986 Articles by R. Dalke, R. Achatz & G. A. Huf as long as d, in addition to by J.D Parsons & A.U.H Sheikh, 1992 High VHF Environment Evidence presented suggest High-B in addition to VHF has reception issues using indoor type receiving antennas DTV Reception Issues Man-Made Electrical Noise Inefficient Receiving Antenna Transmit Power Increase to reduce the significance of these issues is likely on the order of 10 dB or more Impulse Noise Interference (Leaf Blower) Question no. 1 What changes could be made to VHF station transmissions (power, antenna in addition to others) to improve the reception of their signals within their service areas Limited options to improve the VHF service: Low VHF Power increases will help, but there are physical in addition to practical limitations to achieve any significant reception improvement High VHF Power increases will improve reception in some cases. However increase power can lead to increase interference to other stations. Implementation constraints will have to be taken into account. Question no. 2 Have improvements in technology made it possible to improve consumer receiver/antenna per as long as mance, especially as long as indoor reception There are no “silver bullets” that will offer dramatic improvements in DTV as long as the VHF b in addition to s. Antenna size will continue to limit Low VHF improvements Improvements in computer simulation in addition to design technology have allowed incremental improvement of antennas. To date however, most of these incremental improvements have been realized in antennas that operate in the UHF in addition to High VHF b in addition to s. While antenna companies could realistically make additional incremental improvements in the size in addition to per as long as mance of Low VHF antennas, known physical laws preclude radical “order of magnitude” type improvements Question no. 2 (continued) Indoor reception problem is probably the best c in addition to idate as long as a high technology solution. Options such as smart antennas or the use of wireless repeater systems to make it easy as long as consumers to relay signals from compact outdoor antennas through the roof or a wall to indoor televisions. Development of solutions such as these often depend on the cooperation of the television manufacturers to implement a new feature or technology in their flat panel televisions. This is a difficult since television manufacturers are reluctant to add additional cost to their products. It is unlikely that any new technology as long as improving reception will occur in the near future. Question no. 2 (continued) In the receiver signal path, improvements to shielding, input filtering in addition to overload resistance in addition to linearity may help relieve some reception issues. None of these improvements however will offer the radical improvements necessary ensure good per as long as mance in the Low VHF b in addition to Reducing the spurious in addition to out of b in addition to emissions from consumers devices may help Bergholdt, Brad San Jose Mercury News Freelance Columnist www.phwiki.com

Question no. 3 Should the FCC set consumer antenna per as long as mance st in addition to ards Increase maximum power limits FCC should not set consumer antenna per as long as mance st in addition to ards. The universe of antenna characteristics including, gain vs frequency, VSWR, b in addition to width, in addition to other technical characteristics, coupled with the variability of the individual viewer’s geography, make a one size fits all per as long as mance st in addition to ard difficult in addition to impractical Need to st in addition to ardize descriptive terminology in addition to per as long as mance measurement st in addition to ards could be helpful to manufacturers, retailers in addition to consumers Question no.3 (continued) Should the FCC set consumer antenna per as long as mance st in addition to ards Increase maximum power limits Yes, increasing maximum power limits will improve reception, especially at High VHF as long as indoor reception. Power increases however increase the interference distance, in addition to are limited by physical, in addition to practical constraints Question no. 4 What options are available as long as improving TV service in the lower VHF b in addition to There are currently very few, if any, avenues as long as improving TV service in the Low VHF b in addition to . Practical power increases will marginally improve reception, but given the increased RF noise level in the b in addition to , in addition to physical limitations on the size in addition to efficiency of the transmit in addition to receive antennas, the increase is not sufficient to compensate as long as these deficiencies Reducing the spurious in addition to out of b in addition to emissions from consumers devices may help

Question no. 5 What is the most optimal use of the lower VHF b in addition to There are several options as long as sharing the Low VHF b in addition to with existing broadcast licensees. Options include: Designate it as a Spectrum Innovation B in addition to in addition to Permit alternative uses of Low-VHF b in addition to , such as: Long distance digital data back hauls Rural law en as long as cement in addition to local emergency responders Others, where use is to be determined by entrepreneurs Question no. 6 How should we be thinking about the VHF b in addition to in general – what is the best use of that spectrum Low VHF The answer is highlighted in question no.5 High VHF Other than the current use of the b in addition to , Group did not have an opinion on this question Final Thoughts Improvement in VHF reception is difficult in addition to limited by: The laws of Physics RF environment Practical limitation of transmitting in addition to receiving equipment design

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Extreme Physics Explorer: A Mission to Test Basic Physics Martin Elvis Harvard-S

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Extreme Physics Explorer: A Mission to Test Basic Physics Martin Elvis Harvard-S

Green, Judy, Freelance Children’s Book Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Extreme Physics Explorer: A Mission to Test Basic Physics Martin Elvis Harvard-Smithsonian Center as long as Astrophysics An International, multi-agency mission of opportunity What is the Future of X-ray Binary Research Fields go through 3 phases: Discovery: mapping basic properties Widespread excitement rockets, UHURU to EXOSAT Underst in addition to ing: detailed study & physics Specialist interest only EXOSAT to Rossi XTE Tool: use underst in addition to ing to ask new questions Widespread interest begun by Ch in addition to ra, XMM-Newton Is X-ray binary research ending phase 2 Is phase 3 the testing of Extreme Physics Black Holes, Magnetars & Neutron Stars are cosmic laboratories as long as Extreme Physics: Gravity at the event horizon – Black Holes Frame dragging, metric in strong gravity – AGNs, BH binaries Magnetic fields with energy densities greater than an electron – Magnetars BQED=4.4×1013 g Densities of nuclear matter or beyond – ‘neutron’ stars

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Neutron star surfaces explore extreme physics have a hard surface enabling precision measurements have a thin atmosphere that imprints sharp atomic features in their spectra Enables spectroscopic tests of extreme physics are intrinsically X-ray sources deDeo & Psaltis, 2003 astro-ph/0302095 Space-Time curvature Gravitational redshift at neutron star surface Cottam J. Paerels F. & Mendez M., 2002, Nature, 420, 51 EX Hya: HETG R~500 Dvradial= 58.2 +/- 3.7 km/s Relative velocity only requires stability not absolute calibration +/-0.04, 10% errors Spectrum integrated over spin period, several bursts Spectroscopy: NS Equation of State Example: So far M only from orbit solution Spectroscopy adds: Gravitational redshift due to neutron star: zg ~ M/R Bhattacharya et al. 2006 ApJ + Doppler shift vs. phase ~12 km/s R x sin i Map R vs. M of EoS Van den Heuvel zg~ 0.3 czg~100,000 km s-1 1% errors ~1000 km/s -> R ~ 300 DE ~ 20 eV @ 6 keV DE = 2eV @ 1 keV zg spin Doppler shift Orbit solution

Extreme Magnetic Fields: X-ray Pulsars Polarized by: Emission process: cyclotron Scattering on highly magnetized plasma: Swing of polarization angle vs. phase measures: orientation of rotation axis on the sky & inclination of the magnetic field the case 45°, 45° (from Meszaros et al. 1988) Thanks to Enrico Costa Testing GR in strong field: bending of light in Galactic Black-Hole Binaries The Polarization angle from an accretion disk in the ‘Newtonian’ case is either parallel to the major axis of the sky-projected disk (positive) or parallel to the sky-projected disk symmetry axis (negative) If the field is strong enough polarization is altered by gravitational effects. The polarization plane rotates continuously with energy because of General Relativistic effects. This is a signature of the presence of a black-hole Stark & Connors, Connors& Stark, 1977, Connors, Piran & Stark, 1980. Polarimetry gives the orientation of an accretion disk on th sky Sunyaev & Titarchuk, 1985 Thanks to Enrico Costa Simulated observation Requirements as long as using Compact Objects as Physics Labs Compact object = ‘accelerator’ X-ray telescope = ‘experiment’ Observational Requirements: High spectral resolution R~500 precise measurements of zg, B High time resolution Dt = 100msec Resolve 10 phase bins in msec period Large area 5-10 sq.m: to collect enough photons: few x 103 counts in few x 103 ~1 eV spectral bins x 10 phase bins 106 photons to measure 10s 1% polarization Gratings need a good (<10” HPD) mirror Polarization Quantum critical B-field effects Crab = 104 ct/s/sq.m XRBs ~103 ct/s/sq.m Dreaming Extreme Physics Explorer A mission designed to study physics in the extreme environments provided by neutron stars in addition to black holes Not an X-ray astronomy mission A physics mission though utilizing X-ray astronomy techniques Achieves: Large collecting area High time resolution High spectral resolution Sensitive polarimetry Targets: Galactic neutron star in addition to black hole binaries, including magnetars, transients Long observations Microcalorimeters as timing devices Pulse rise time ~50 msec Event timing to ~5 ms Energy resolution <5 eV R>200 @ 1keV Con-X, NEW, DIOS goal 2 eV R=500 @1 keV = RGS, HETGS QE ~ 1 (down to ~0.5 keV) Ideal as long as neutron stars BUT: Count rate limit ~103 Hz Event duration ~100 msec Constellation-X cannot observe X-ray binaries with XRS SMALL ~1 cm2 area Overcoming microcalorimeter limitations: 1. Area Galactic X-ray neutron star binaries emit ~103 ct/s/sq.m Need ~107 counts/observation Observation should be small fraction of hours-days binary orbit: ~104s -> Area ~1 – 5 sq. m. = mirrors. Con-X mirrors weigh 280 kg m-2 too much as long as a MIDEX But: Good imaging is bad as long as microcalorimeter timing: Need to spread out the signal. ~1 arcminute HPD optics are about right. SOLUTION: microchannel plate mirrors: 3.7 kg m-2

Microchannel Plate Mirrors = LOBSTER optics Well developed (U. Leicester) Not XEUS Micropore optics Lightweight: 3.7 kg m-2 1/10 area/mass ratio of next lightest X-ray mirrors (ASCA/Suzaku foils) Plate-like, robust: fold/deploy easily Units ~1.7m dia. Deploy to 5m dia. 1 arcmin HPD: Demonstrated Bavdaz et al 2002 SPIE Not so bad: low background, confusion: can reach 10’s of AGNs High aperture utilization Thermal control Long Focal Length Needs ~40m focal length to get area f-number is fixed as long as grazing incidence mirrors 1arcmin ~ 1.5cm @ focal plane: good size as long as microcalorimeters Flight-tested light-weight deployable optical benches exist Able Engineering: UARS, GGC WDIND, GGS POLAR, Cassini, Lunar Prospector, IMAGE Slow slewing: long observations Overcoming microcalorimeter limitations: 2. Count rate Count rate limit is per pixel: 32×32 array can count at 1 MHz – as long as uni as long as m illumination C.f. 105 ct/s 10sq.m X-ray binary C.f. Con-X: 32×32, 2eV; NEW 32×32 2eV; DIOS 16×16 6eV Slightly larger arrays allow as long as aspect jitter: 5 arcsec rms -> ~10 arcsec 90% -> 5 pixels -> 42×42 array Pixel size ~ 500 mm (~ 2 arcsec) 50 meter focal length (to get needed area) 1 arcsec ~0.25 mm 1 arcmin beam size ~9 mm dia. ~ 2 x Con-X = DIOS DE = 2.36x 2m1/4 (kT2C/a)1/2 , C=heat capacity = a(pixel size)2 Trade-off: technical difficulty of larger arrays vs. DE

Optimizing Microcalorimeter Energy resolution Challenging spectral resolution: DE = 2eV, R = 500 @ 1 keV Easier to achieve over limited b in addition to width: thinner converter, lower heat capacity Divide high in addition to low energy signal between two detector arrays, few arcmin apart Tilt outer shells by ~5 arcmin ~10% of 1 keV graze angle Degradation of beam shape small compared with 1 arcmin HPD Also enables ~doubling of maximum count rate Keep polarimeter on axis – avoid instrumental polarization Focal Plane layout One Polarimeter Option: Micro Pattern Gas Detector Costa et al. Polarization from tracks of photoelectron: 50% modulation, 5.4 keV imaged by a finely subdivided gas detector, PIXI High time resolution: few msec High count rate: few 104 ct/s Put in ‘warm’ focal plane 10-20arcmin from mcalorimeter. Thanks to Enrico Costa A fast evolving technique Chip I (2003) 2101 pixel; pitch 80mm; 4 mm Ø Chip II (2004) 20000 pixel; pitch 80mm; 11 × 11 mm2 Chp III (2006) 105600 pixel: pitch 50 mm 15 × 15 mm2 Morover in Chip III each pixel has independent trigger in addition to capability to convert only triggered channels very fast read-out, few msec Thanks to Enrico Costa

MIDEX Scale Mission Mass Feasible mass budget: 10 m2 microchannel plate mirror: 37 kg Mirror support assembly: 37 kg Optical bench (extending to 40m): 40 kg Optical bench canister: 50kg Calorimeter & cryostat: 123 kg Spacecraft: 200 kg 20% reserve: 83 kg TOTAL: 585 kg Easily within MIDEX range Add small polarimeter, ASM mass Use excess to achieve a high orbit gives long continuous coverage Geostationary Continuous data contact: 104 ct s-1 x 64 bits/event = 0.1 Mbaud continuous But high background Not important as long as bright X-ray binaries May overload telemetry Challenges 2 eV 42×42 microcalorimeter array Mass production of microchannel plate optics Deployment of MCP optics Data rate: 0.1 MB continuous 40 meter optical bench Polarimeter Small cryostat; no cryogen All Sky Monitor as long as transients Science case development Spectro-timing, Polarimetric tests not fully developed Need simulations as long as specific sources Form Science Working Group Extreme Physics Explorer – A Next Generation RXTE 10 times area 100 times spectral resolution 1/1000 beam size 5ms time resolution polarimetry

Extreme Physics Explorer – A Mission of Opportunity NASA Appeals to: Fundamental Physics; RXTE community SAO [mirror partner, ops/data center] GSFC [mcalorimeter] DoE Fundamental Physics connection (&much cheaper than JDEM!) Potential International partners: With likely funding: Canada want a mission; Kaspi (McGill) pushing X-ray binaries Netherl in addition to s (SRON) want to fly a mcalorimeter as XEUS prep. Funding less clear: UK (Leicester) microchannel plate mirror Italy (ASI) U. Rome [polarimeter] Extreme Physics Explorer Time is ripe as long as X-ray emitting Compact Objects research to move to 3rd phase: Extreme Physics Physics-Astrophysics collaboration on Extreme Physics Need theoretical predictions of spectral features email elvis@cfa.harvard.edu if you want to join in The next accelerator Extreme Physics Explorer MIDEX scale: 500kg, deployed optics, 40m focal length, GEO orbit Microchannel plate Mirror: Area ~5-10 m2 at ~0.5 – ~10 keV [goal 20keV] ~10 x RXTE (PCA), ~500 x Ch in addition to ra (HETG, LETG) Arcminute imaging Long focal length ~40m Microcalorimeter: 2 42×42 arrays, 500mm pixels Low E: DE=2eV R=500 @ 1 keV, v +/-30 km/s High E: DE=6eV R=1000 @ 6 keV Polarimeter: TBD: several c in addition to idate technologies

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Experiment 5 Part A: Bridge Circuits Part B: Strain Gauges Part C: Oscilla

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Experiment 5 Part A: Bridge Circuits Part B: Strain Gauges Part C: Oscilla

Goth, Greg, Freelance Business Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Experiment 5 Part A: Bridge Circuits Part B: Strain Gauges Part C: Oscillation of an Instrumented Beam Part D: Oscillating Circuits Part A Bridges Thevenin Equivalent Circuits Wheatstone Bridge A bridge is just two voltage dividers in parallel. The output is the difference between the two dividers.

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A Balanced Bridge Circuit Thevenin Voltage Equivalents In order to better underst in addition to how bridges work, it is useful to underst in addition to how to create Thevenin Equivalents of circuits. Thevenin invented a model called a Thevenin Source as long as representing a complex circuit using A single “pseudo” source, Vth A single “pseudo” resistance, Rth A B A B Thevenin Voltage Equivalents This model can be used interchangeably with the original (more complex) circuit when doing analysis. The Thevenin source, “looks” to the load on the circuit like the actual complex combination of resistances in addition to sources.

The Battery Model Recall that we measured the internal resistance of a battery. This is actually the Thevenin equivalent model as long as the battery. The actual battery is more complicated – including chemistry, aging, Thevenin Model Load Resistor Any linear circuit connected to a load can be modeled as a Thevenin equivalent voltage source in addition to a Thevenin equivalent impedance. Note: We might also see a circuit with no load resistor, like this voltage divider.

Thevenin Method Find Vth (open circuit voltage) Remove load if there is one so that load is open Find voltage across the open load Find Rth (Thevenin resistance) Set voltage sources to zero (current sources to open) – in effect, shut off the sources Find equivalent resistance from A to B A B Example: The Bridge Circuit We can remodel a bridge as a Thevenin Voltage source A A B B Find Vth by removing the Load Let Vo=12, R1=2k, R2=4k, R3=3k, R4=1k A A B B

To find Rth First, short out the voltage source (turn it off) & redraw the circuit as long as clarity. A B A B Find Rth Find the parallel combinations of R1 & R2 in addition to R3 & R4. Then find the series combination of the results. Redraw Circuit as a Thevenin Source Then add any load in addition to treat it as a voltage divider.

Thevenin Method Tricks Note When a short goes across a resistor, that resistor is replaced by a short. When a resistor connects to nothing, there will be no current through it in addition to , thus, no voltage across it. Thevenin Applet (see webpage) Test your Thevenin skills using this applet from the links as long as Exp 3 Does this really work To confirm that the Thevenin method works, add a load in addition to check the voltage across in addition to current through the load to see that the answers agree whether the original circuit is used or its Thevenin equivalent. If you know the Thevenin equivalent, the circuit analysis becomes much simpler.

Thevenin Method Example Checking the answer with PSpice Note the identical voltages across the load. 7.4 – 3.3 = 4.1 (only two significant digits in Rth) Thevenin’s method is extremely useful in addition to is an important topic. But back to bridge circuits – as long as a balanced bridge circuit, the Thevenin equivalent voltage is zero. An unbalanced bridge is of interest. You can also do this using Thevenin’s method. Why are we interested in the bridge circuit Wheatstone Bridge Start with R1=R4=R2=R3 Vout=0 If one R changes, even a small amount, Vout 0 It is easy to measure this change. Strain gauges look like resistors in addition to the resistance changes with the strain The change is very small.

Using a parameter sweep to look at bridge circuits. PSpice allows you to run simulations with several values as long as a component. In this case we will “sweep” the value of R4 over a range of resistances. This is the “PARAM” part Name the variable that will be changed Parameter Sweep Set up the values to use. In this case, simulations will be done as long as 11 values as long as Rvar. Parameter Sweep All 11 simulations can be displayed Right click on one trace in addition to select “in as long as mation” to know which Rvar is shown.

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Part B Strain Gauges The Cantilever Beam Damped Sinusoids Strain Gauges When the length of the traces changes, the resistance changes. It is a small change of resistance so we use bridge circuits to measure the change. The change of the length is the strain. If attached tightly to a surface, the strain of the gauge is equal to the strain of the surface. We use the change of resistance to measure the strain of the beam. Strain Gauge in a Bridge Circuit

Cantilever Beam The beam has two strain gauges, one on the top of the beam in addition to one on the bottom. The stain is approximately equal in addition to opposite as long as the two gauges. In this experiment, we will hook up the strain gauges in a bridge circuit to observe the oscillations of the beam. Modeling Damped Oscillations v(t) = A sin(t) Modeling Damped Oscillations v(t) = Be-t

Hard Drive Cantilever The read-write head is at the end of a cantilever. This control problem is a remarkable feat of engineering. More on Hard Drives A great example of Mechatronics.

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Summary of the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking working group Part 1: Experiments Summary

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Summary of the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking working group Part 1: Experiments Summary

Sherwood, Lyn, Freelance Bullfighting Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Summary of the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking working group Part 1: Experiments Dhiman Chakraborty Northern Illinois University WIN07, Kolkata, India 15-20 January, 2007 In as long as mative, stimulating, engaging talks from collider experiment collaborations Reports from the LHC, Tevatron, HERA: Experiment status in addition to commissioning (2) Electroweak measurements (3) Studies of the top quark (2) Higgs searches (1) Searches as long as physics beyond the St in addition to ard Model (3) CMS status, commissioning in addition to early physics prospects (L. Malgeri)

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CMS physics roadmap 100 fb -1 /yr 1000 fb -1 /yr 3000 300 30 10-20 fb -1 /yr First physics run: O(1fb-1) SUSY@1TeV SUSY@3TeV Z f @6TeV ADD X-dim@9TeV Compositeness@40TeV H(120GeV) 100 fb -1 /yr 1000 fb -1 /yr 200 fb -1 /yr 3000 300 30 10-20 fb -1 /yr SUSY@1TeV SUSY@3TeV Z f @6TeV ADD X-dim@9TeV Compositeness@40TeV H(120GeV) gg Higgs@200GeV Summary CMS assembling in addition to commissioning is going full speed No major obstacles as long as eseen on the road Recent MTCC, software challenges have proven that: CMS can work with full magnetic field CMS sub-detectors can work as a single detector The DAQ in addition to (new!) software is ready as long as prime-time CMS started to be lowered in the pit A full physics commissioning plan is setup: alignment in addition to calibration re-discover SM possible early discoveries Initial CMS will be ready as long as collisions in 2007 ATLAS detector status in addition to early physics (S. Tanaka) Inner Tracking (<2.5, B=2T) : Silicon pixels in addition to strips Transition Radiation Detector (+e/ separation) Solenoid B=2T Calorimetry (<5) : EM : Pb-LAr with Accordion shape HAD: Fe/scintillator (central), Cu/W-LAr (fwd) Muon Spectrometer (<2.7) : Air-core toroids with muon chambers (Trigger + Precise measurements) Length : ~45 m Height : ~25 m Weight : ~ 7000 tons Electronic channels : ~ 108 ~ 3000 km of cables ATLAS physics roadmap With early 14 TeV run, (~10pb-1) Study minimum-bias, di-jet, pile-up events (~100pb-1) Missing ET,, Jet Energy calibration (-> SUSY, Higgs) Top , W, Z , QCD b-jet (SM processes) (~ few fb-1) Early Higgs search (H->W+W-,ZZ) SUSY, BSM search (Miss ET, Di-Jet, Di-Lepton ) End of 2008 : will be record few fb-1 data. ATLAS summary The ATLAS detector is well on its way to be ready in 2007. Magnets : Solenoid, Barrel Toroid : operation OK. End-cap Toroid: will be install but some delay Inner Tracker: SCT+TRT : Barrel installed (Cosmic ray test independently) : End-cap will be install in Feb 2007. PXCEL: will be install in April 2007. (Schedule is tight) Calorimeter: Barrel LAr+ Tile : Installed in addition to start cosmic run End-cap will start cold operation from April 2007. Muon: Barrel parts (MDT+RPC) installed (some segments start cosmic run) End-Cap : 1 TGC Big Wheel (need 6 wheels) has installed MDT Wheel is now installing (will be install be as long as e beam closing) From autumn 2007, we will start to record 900 GeV data in addition to calibrate detector response as long as preparing 14 TeV run. ATLAS will be ready to enter the new high energy scale in 2008. Electroweak results from the Tevatron (C. Hays) New CDF measurement of W mass is world’s most precise Central value up by 6 MeV to 80398 MeV World avg uncertainty reduced by ~15% SM Higgs mass constrained to 80+36-26 GeV

Tevatron electroweak summary High-luminosity data samples are opening new physics windows. Most precise determination of W mass (CDF) Expect <25 MeV precision with 1.5 fb-1 data already collected. First observation of WZ production Expect most sensitive probes to anomalous WWZ couplings. First hint of Wradiation amplitude zero Expect to observe this quantum interference effect. Many other measurements of W in addition to Z boson properties constraining couplings in addition to PDFs. Electroweak results from HERA (E. Rizvi) Direct measurement of parity violation in neutral current interactions HERA electroweak summary Many interesting results coming from HERA experiments NC & CC measurements at EW scale Improvement of statistical precision through H1 & ZEUS combination Clear observation of parity violation in NC channel Simultaneous QCD & EW fits per as long as med on HERA data Determination of spacelike propagator mass in CC interactions Polarised CC date give direct sensitivity to WR limit set Extraction of light quark couplings to Z0 The St in addition to ard Model holds up extremely well Last six months of HERA operation Final analysis of complete HERA dataset will follow EW physics at the LHC (K. Mazumdar) Precision measurements can be done with early data. Stat. uncertainties will be negligible, thanks to huge cross sections. Final precision will be limited by underst in addition to ing of physics in addition to detector response. Knowledge of total luminosity will drive cross section measurements. Excellent momentum in addition to energy resolution as long as leptons (all flavors) in addition to jets (both light in addition to heavy) will be crucial: requires accurate in addition to precise alignment of detector elements (<1 m as long as inner tracking). High potential as long as tests of the SM through precision EW measurements. Studies of the top quark at Tevatron (E. Aguilo) Top mass measurement at the Tevatron Many analyses Evidence of single top production (via electroweak processes) at the Tevatron EVIDENCE!!! Tevatron top quark summary Rich program at Tevatron leading into the LHC era. July 2006 Tevatron combined top mass: mt = 171.4 ± 1.2 ± 1.7 GeV dominated by the CDF lepton+jets measurement: mt = 170.9 ± 1.6 ± 2.0 GeV The precision is better than expected! CDF combined top pair production cross section: tt) = 7.3 ± 0.5 ± 0.7 pb Evidence of electroweak single top production has been found at DØ with the Decision Trees analysis. Measured cross section: t) = 4.9 ± 1.4 pb (3.4) And a first direct measurement of Vtb has been made: 0.68 < Vtb < 1 @ 95% CL Top physics at the LHC (G. Steinbrück) Pair production cross section: ~870 pb (NLO), i.e. ~120x tevatron Run 2. ~87% via gluon fusion, ~13% via quark annihilation Rate ~ 1Hz at 1033cm-2s-1LHC is a top factory unlike the Tevatron. Differential x-sec become more powerful! Single production rate enhanced similarly Many detailed studies have been done by ATLAS in addition to CMS to determine the physics potential in addition to the challenges as long as (top) physics. Top mass measurement is expected to reach the precision of 1 GeV. Tests of the SM through spin correlation, production kinematics Searches as long as new physics through deviations from SM predictitons (SM) Higgs physics at the LHC (L. Feligioni) Gluon Gluon fusion: Dominant production mode NLO correction important K = 1.7 Main contribution is gluon radiation many events with at least one jet NNLO cross section known Sig(NNLO)/Sig(NLO) = 1.3 Vector Boson Fusion: small K factor ~ 1.1 Small jet multiplicity in final state No color exchange between quarks large energetic jets at small pT Low hadronic activity in central region from hard event a part from Higgs decay Production with Gauge boson: Known NNLO as long as QCD in addition to EW corrections Production with heavy quarks: More complicated final state More than 10 diagrams, known at NLO (SM) Higgs decay Light Higgs (110

Searches at HERA as long as beyond-SM physics (A. Raval) Model dependent searches Leptoquarks Lepton flavor violation Excited fermions Single top production Doubly charged Higgs Supersymmetry Model independent searches Events with isolated leptons in addition to missing ET Tau production Multi-lepton production Magnetic monopoles General searches Limits from precision measurements NC DIS: CI, LEDs, quark radius CC DIS: Right-h in addition to ed weak currents Summary of HERA searches as long as BSM physics New results on Leptoquarks Compositeness Large Extra Dimensions Excited fermions Supersymmetry HERA results competitive in most areas in addition to complementary in others Interesting excess/fluctuations (H1 excess in high-pT multiilepton events not confirmed by ZEUS) ! Still more HERA II data to come (until March 07) Summary This summer HERA will conclude 14 years of successful studies of lepton-neucleon scattering at the highest energies Tevatron is going strong, expected to run till 2009 (20 years!). Exciting results have been emerging steadily. Many more are expected. SM is still holding its ground. Search as long as the Higgs in addition to new physics are on – more data than current have yet to come. LHC experiments are on course to start taking data this year. Revolutionary discoveries of new physics are expected in the coming years. For details, see the many excellent talks at this conference – thanks to all the speakers. Thanks to the organizers as long as hosting this fruitful in addition to enjoyable event, in addition to to the participants as long as making it a success.

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Evidence as long as God from Cosmology Richard Deem Evidence as long as God The Greatest Disco

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Evidence as long as God from Cosmology Richard Deem Evidence as long as God The Greatest Disco

Rufus, Anneli, Freelance Book Reviewer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Evidence as long as God from Cosmology Richard Deem Evidence as long as God The Greatest Discovery (COBE, 1992) “unbelievably important They have found the Holy Grail of cosmology” Michael Turner (University of Chicago) “It is the discovery of the century, if not all time” Stephen Hawking (Cambridge University, UK) “What we have found is evidence as long as the birth of the universe. It’s like looking at God.” George Smoot (UC Berkeley – COBE project leader) Relativity vs. The Newtonian Universe Michelson in addition to Morely (1887) Velocity of light Einstein (1905) Special Relativity (E = mc2) Einstein (1915) General Relativity

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General Relativity – Einstein Discovers God where: =density p=pressure G=constant of gravity c=speed of light Origins of the Big Bang Theory Vesto Slipher (1914) “Nebulae” receding from the earth Alex in addition to er Friedman (1922) Expansion of the universe Hubble (1929) Law of Red-Shifts Hot Big Bang Model George Gamow (1946) First hot big bang model Bell Labs (1965) First background radiation measurement Cosmic Background Explorer (1992) Ripples in background radiation

Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Universe is a perfect radiator (to 1 part in 10,000)- background temperature of 2.726°K (1990) Refined COBE measurements showed irregularities of 1 part in 100,000 (1992) COBE DMR Alternate Models Infinite/eternal Universe Steady State Universe Oscillating Universe The Hartle-Hawking Model Quantum Cosmology

Infinite/Eternal Universe Problems Paradox of the Dark Night Sky Light decreases 4-fold with doubling of distance Volume (or number of stars) increases 8-fold with doubling of distance Steady State Universe No stars greater than 16 billion years old No newly as long as med galaxies (all as long as med at same time) Oscillating universe Only 10-50% of matter needed as long as collapse (open universe) A collapse would lead to “Big Crunch” instead of bounce

The Universe as an Engine The Hartle-Hawking Model Quantum physics invoked prior to 10-43 second, to eliminate the singularity Requires use of imaginary time Problems in Quantum Cosmology Observer based – who is the observer The universe represents a very long quantum “moment”

Implications of Big Bang Time, space, matter in addition to energy all came into existence at once Time is a created dimension Objections to the Big Bang “philosophically unacceptable” (atheist John Maddox, “Down with the Big Bang”in Nature) “smacks of divine intervention” (Stephen Hawking, A Brief History of Time ). Evidence as long as God’s Existence from Design Divine Watchmaker (William Paley) Refuted by: David Hume Charles Darwin Recently by: Stephen Jay Gould Richard Dawkins

New Watchmaker Argument Based upon measurable parameters Probabilities calculable from the observable universe Tolerance as long as change (fine tuning) calculable from physical laws A “Just Right” Universe A “Just Right” Galaxy

Rufus, Anneli East Bay Express Freelance Book Reviewer www.phwiki.com

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Società Italiana di Economia Agraria   “Esperienze e prospettive nella valutazio

Società Italiana di Economia Agraria   “Esperienze e prospettive nella valutazio www.phwiki.com

Società Italiana di Economia Agraria   “Esperienze e prospettive nella valutazio

Crothers, Brooke, Freelance Blogger / Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Società Italiana di Economia Agraria “Esperienze e prospettive nella valutazione della ricerca” MIUR, 11 dicembre 2009 Strutture partecipanti 102 Ricercatori del sistema 64.028 Aree di Ricerca 20 Panelist 151 Esperti esterni 6.661 Prodotti selezionati 18.508 Prodotti valutati 17.329 Valutazioni 35.440 Costi diretti di processo 3.550.000 euro Comprensivi di un 6% di prodotti comuni a più Strutture. Numeri del VTR 2001-2003 VTR – Giudizi (peer review) Tot.17.329 prodotti

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VTR – Coefficiente di merito attribuito all’Università xxx Tipologie di prodotto Tipologia dei prodotti (1)

Nelle diverse Aree Distribuzione per Lingua Grado medio di Proprietà Impact Factor dei prodotti

Distribuzione dei giudizi (3) Distribuzione dei giudizi (4) VTR – Giudizi vs Citazioni

Il VQR (Valutazione Quinquennale della Ricerca) abbraccia il periodo compreso tra il 1° gennaio 2004 e il 31 dicembre 2008 SOGGETTI COINVOLTI Università statali; Enti di ricerca vigilati dal MIUR; Altri soggetti pubblici e privati, che svolgano attività di ricerca (su richiesta). AREE DI VALUTAZIONE esclusivamente le 14 Aree disciplinari CUN, per ognuna delle quali viene costituito un Comitato (Panel) i cui componenti sono nominati dal Ministro su indicazione del CIVR. VQR 2004-2008 VQR 2004-2008 – Ricercatori (2008) Peer review e/o analisi delle citazioni La scelta metodologica compete ai Panel, che devono motivarla; il giudizio deve comunque essere descrittivo. Vengono valutati: strutture dipartimenti singoli ricercatori

VQR 2004-2008 – Adempimenti delle Strutture DATI E INFORMAZIONI Ricercatori (a tempo determinato, indeterminato e in as long as mazione – dottor in addition to i, assegnisti, borsisti post-doc e specializz in addition to i) Personale tecnico e amministrativo Brevetti & spin-off Mobilità internazionale Entrate per finanziamenti di progetti di ricerca Impegno di risorse proprie in progetti di ricerca PUBBLICAZIONI Articoli su riviste (solo se dotate di International St in addition to ard Serial Number) ; Libri e loro capitoli, inclusi atti di congressi (solo se dotati di ISBN) ; Brevetti depositati; Composizioni, disegni, design, per as long as mance, mostre ed esposizioni organizzate, manufatti, prototipi e opere d’arte e loro progetti, banche dati e software: solo se corredati da pubblicazioni atte a consentirne la valutazione. Ogni ricercatore deve presentare almeno DUE/QUATTRO pubblicazioni riferite al quinquennio che lo vedano in posizione di autore o coautore. La Struttura seleziona UNA/DUE pubblicazioni per la valutazione dei Panel. RAPPORTO DEL NUCLEO/COMITATO INTERNO DI VALUTAZIONE. VQR 2004-2008 – Adempimenti del CVR Analisi delle citazioni di tutti gli articoli pubblicati nel 2004-2008 sulle riviste censite da SCOPUS; determinazione dei pesi e delle quote di Area; analisi dei dati e delle in as long as mazioni, con sviluppo dei relativi indicatori di per as long as mance; relazione finale dell’esercizio 2004-2008 del VQR: valutazione di merito del sistema nazionale della ricerca; valutazione di merito di ogni singola Struttura; valutazione della capacità di trasferimento tecnologico e di valorizzazione applicativa della ricerca di ciascuna Struttura posizionamento internazionale delle pubblicazioni soggette ad analisi delle citazioni (Top 1%, 5%, 10%) valutazione di merito di ciascun Dipartimento. SCOPUS CATEGORIES

Benchmarking internazionale 2000-2008 Numero totale articoli (azzurro) Articoli con numero di citazioni US H-Index (rosso) Biochemistry, Genetics in addition to Molecular Biology – Numero prodotti Biochemistry, Genetics in addition to Molecular Biology – Qualità

Neuroscience – Numero prodotti Neuroscience – Qualità Pharmacology, Toxicology in addition to Pharmaceutics – Numero prodotti

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Pharmacology, Toxicology in addition to Pharmaceutics – Qualità Chemistry – Numero prodotti Chemistry – Qualità

Engineering – Numero prodotti Engineering – Qualità Physics in addition to Astronomy – Numero prodotti

Network scientifici: nodi=SSD; primi 100 prodotti più citati con affiliazioni di ricercatori AREA 06.

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