Parasitism in addition to Symbiosis: isotope effects in mistletoe in addition to as long as aminifera

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Parasitism in addition to Symbiosis: isotope effects in mistletoe in addition to as long as aminifera

Hurh, JP, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Parasitism in addition to Symbiosis: isotope effects in mistletoe in addition to as long as aminifera http://mmcconeghy.com/arizona/images/mistletoe.jpg (Spero, 1998) Carbon isotope composition, gas exchange in addition to heterotrophy in Australian mistletoes Marshall, Ehleringer, Schulze, in addition to Farquhar, 1994 http://www.rms.nau.edu/mistletoe/images/toe3.jpg 13C of plant tissue related to photosynthetic gas exchange by this equation: 13Cplant=13Cair-a-(b-a) (ci/ca) 13Cplant= carbon isotope of tissue 13Cair= atmospheric CO2 (-8‰) Ci=intercellular CO2 concentration Ca=atmospheric CO2 concentration (look familiar)

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It would make sense as long as parasite 13C to be intermediate between host plant carbon (lower ci) in addition to mistletoe photosynthate. 13Cparasite= (A[13Cair-a-(b-a)(ci/ca)]+Ecx 13C)/A+Ecx A= rate of photosynthesis E= rate of transpiration Cx= [carbon] in xylem sap 13C= isotopic ratio of xylem carbon (=host tissue) Due to leakiness, mistletoes expected to have lighter 13C, but remain heavy if taking carbon from host. Xylem carbon concentration was estimated from measured photosynthetic rate (A), in addition to transpiration rate (E) Cx= (AH)/E(1-H) H is a measure of proportional heterotrophy Large differences in the A/E ratio between host in addition to parasite should be associated with similar differences in ci/ca; causing isotopic difference Host Average 13C=-26.81+-0.25‰ Parasite Average 13C=-28.67+-0.23‰ ~2X difference in A/E (Marshall et al., 1994)

(Marshall et al., 1994) Measured 13C plotted against 13C predicted with basic equation: 13Cplant=13Cair-a-(b-a) (ci/ca) “calculated mistletoe” includes contribution of host xylem carbon Carbon in addition to nitrogen isotope ratios, nitrogen content in addition to heterotrophy in New Zeal in addition to mistletoes Bannister in addition to Strong, 2000 Smaller difference in isotopic ratios of host organisms in addition to parasites Host Average 13C=-28.89+-0.12‰ Parasite Average 13C=-29.51+-0.10‰ Australia New Zeal in addition to Arid, water limited Mistletoe as long as ced to maintain low water potential in addition to high transpiration rate to take water from stressed host Temperate climate drives similar physiology in host in addition to mistletoe leading to similar isotopic ratios

Intraspecific stable isotope variability in the planktic as long as aminifera Globigerinoides sacculifer: Results from laboratory experiments Spero in addition to Lea, 1993 (Spero, 1998) (Spero, 1998) Benefits of symbiosis in as long as aminifera Energy from photosynthesis Ability to assimilate dissolved inorganic nutrients Metabolite removal NH4+ PO43- 13C: As irradiance ( in addition to algal activity) increases, 13C ratios increase 18O: As irradiance ( in addition to algal activity) increases, 18O ratios decrease

Test size is dependant on light levels Ca2+ + 2HCO3- -> CO2 (to photosynthesis) +CaCO3 (calcite) + H2O Largest individual tests (>750microns) give most accurate isotopic ratios as long as intercore comparison of 13C , because all organisms grew under similar, Pmax conditions. Medium sized tests were calcified under wide range of sub-Pmax conditions, in addition to will yield variable 13C values. Small tests belonged to as long as ams living in the mixed layer/thermocline boundary where there is low light in addition to heterogeneous 13C conditions. 13C=1.5‰ variation from light level changes Goldilocks in addition to the three Globigerinoides http://webpersonal.uma.es/~FSL/imag/Gnoides.sacculifer.jpg Punchline: Symbionts on spines or within rhizopodial web preferentially uptake 12C, creating a microenvironment enriched in 13C that surrounds the test calcifying environment. (large kinetic fractionation associated with ribulose biphosphate carboxylase enzyme) (Spero, 1998)

Mechanism of 18O depletion with increased symbiont Photosynthesis: a possible explanation Rate of calcite precipitation is positively correlated with light intensity High calcification rates imply rapid reaction cycles of CO2 + H2O <-> H2CO3 in addition to rapid exchange of CO2 across membranes This does not allow as long as complete equilibration between cellular in addition to seawater carbon reservoirs So the resulting calcite is depleted in 18O as compared to seawater values Gametogenic calcite 18O effects (Spero, 1998) Pre-gametogenic Release of gametes Gametogenic calcite 18O values enriched relative to seawater, about 2‰

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