Parenting in addition to Obesity Julie C. Lumeng, MD University of Michigan Center as long as Huma

Parenting in addition to Obesity Julie C. Lumeng, MD University of Michigan Center as long as Huma www.phwiki.com

Parenting in addition to Obesity Julie C. Lumeng, MD University of Michigan Center as long as Huma

Koman, Richard, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Parenting in addition to Obesity Julie C. Lumeng, MD University of Michigan Center as long as Human Growth in addition to Development Department of Pediatrics Obesity Trends Among U.S. Adults BRFSS, 1985 (BMI 30, or ~ 30 lbs overweight as long as 5’ 4” woman) 1990

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1995 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 1997 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 1999 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 2002 No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25% 2005 No Data <10% 10–14% 15–19% 20–24% 25–29% 30% Increase in Child Overweight Increase in Rates of Overweight in Children by Race Over 10 Years Strauss RS, Pollock HA, Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986 – 1998. JAMA 286(22). 2845-2848, 2001. Increase in Child Overweight by Race in addition to Socioeconomic Status Strauss RS, Pollock HA, Epidemic increase in childhood overweight, 1986 – 1998. JAMA 286(22). 2845-2848, 2001. US Obesity Prevalence by Race in addition to Age, 2003-2006 Ogden et al, High Body Mass Index as long as Age Among US Children in addition to Adolescents, 2003-2006 . JAMA. 2008;299(20):2401-2405. Overweight Prevalence in Preschoolers in addition to Poverty M Feese et al. Prevalence of Obesity in Children in Alabama in addition to Texas Participating in Social Programs. JAMA 289. 1780 – 1781; 2003. Etiology of Overweight Calories taken in exceed calories expended Institute of Medicine, Committee on Childhood Obesity: Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance A National Priority Industry, advertising, media Local Communities Schools Home “Expert Committee Recommendations as long as Parents” Limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages Encourage diets with recommended quantities of fruits in addition to vegetables Limit television in addition to other screen time by allowing no more than 2 hours per day Remove television in addition to computer screens from children's primary sleeping areas MM Davis, Pediatrics 2007 “Expert Committee” Recommendations as long as Parents MM Davis, Pediatrics 2007 Eat breakfast daily Limiting eating at restaurants Have family meals Limit portion sizes Have an authoritative parenting style Avoid a restrictive parenting style Model healthy behaviors Watching Television JC Lumeng, et al. Television Exposure in addition to Overweight Risk in Preschoolers Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:417-422. Which Children Watch More TV Low maternal education Minority race/ethnicity More televisions in the home More eating meals while watching television TV in the bedroom Maternal depression Maternal obesity Child behavior problems Low quality home environment Saelens 2002. J Dev & Behav Pediatrics; Burdette 2003. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; Certain 2002. Pediatrics; Dennison 2002. Pediatrics; Lumeng 2006. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Safety of the Neighborhood JC Lumeng et al., Neighborhood Safety in addition to Overweight Status in Children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160:25-31. Relationship not altered by child’s sex, race, maternal marital status, maternal education, maternal depression, the child’s participation in structured after-school activities, parental perception of neighborhood social cohesiveness, quality of the home environment Who Feels Unsafe in Their Neighborhood Parents of African American children (as opposed to parents of white children), regardless of socioeconomic status Mothers who are depressed, have low education, in addition to are single Feeding in addition to Parenting Parenting Behavior Impacts How Much Children Eat from Infancy 8- to 14-week-old infants who are provided social interaction while feeding eat 40% more than those who are not provided social interaction Infants who are held while fed closely relate the time elapsed since the last feeding to the amount they eat; when infants are not held, this relationship dissipates Lumeng, Patil, & Blass, Developmental Psychobiology, 2007. Behavior Problems Predicting Childhood Obesity National Longitudinal Survey of Youth N = 629 non-obese children, ages 8 – 11 years 53% male 53% white 9% with behavior problems Tested relationship between baseline “significant behavior problems” in addition to becoming obese 2 years later Koman, Richard NewsFactor Contributing Writer www.phwiki.com

Tested potential confounders: child’s sex Race mother’s marital status mother’s education family poverty status mother’s obesity mother’s depressive symptoms Home Observation as long as Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) cognitive stimulation score mother’s smoking status use of behavior-modifying medication hours of television per day history of academic grade retention Odds ratios as long as childhood obesity 2 years later JC Lumeng et al. Association Between Clinically Meaningful Behavior Problems in addition to Overweight in Children. Pediatrics (112). 1138-1145. 2003. Which children are at higher risk as long as behavioral problems Poverty Single mother Grade retention Low maternal education Maternal depression JC Lumeng et al. Association Between Clinically Meaningful Behavior Problems in addition to Overweight in Children. Pediatrics (112). 1138-1145. 2003.

Media Response “Isn’t it all just bad parenting” “I’ve long suspected that rapidly growing rates of childhood obesity in the United States may be tied, at least in part, to the fact that American children in general seem more out of control in addition to ill-behaved than ever. And that that’s because their parents seem more ineffective in addition to less likely to tell their children “no” than ever. You’ve seen it. The screaming, crying, foot-stomping little kids yelling at their parents in addition to making dem in addition to s in the mall, the grocery store, in addition to virtually every restaurant one enters. It is not particularly surprising kids try that stuff – what’s stunning is watching the impotent, terrified parents looking like deer caught in headlights as it’s happening.” – one journalist Affect Regulation, Food, Mood, in addition to Parenting Children with behavior problems, difficult temperaments more likely to be overweight Children who have tantrums over food more likely to become overweight Food regulates affect (cortisol, stress axis) Use of food to regulate mood in parents in addition to children “Food is love” The Parent-Child Interaction

Low Income Hispanic Mother To feed them, you have to do it with love. Because if you do it when you are in a bad mood or tired, they won’t even eat. The most beautiful thing is that you always give them [food] with love in addition to with that desire – that you know that you are feeding them in addition to that you know that its your responsibility to feed your children. You should do it with lots of care, lots of love in addition to to always try to think that they are being fed by you in addition to that you have to give them the best that you can – with patience -because sometimes [they say] “I don’t want this”, [ in addition to I say], “What do you want, mijo If you didn’t like the food today, what do you want” You have to give them with patience in addition to with love because it is very hard sometimes. One is trying to underst in addition to all of them [her children].

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