Part 1: Nutrition in addition to Food Supplies Essential Nutrients Meat, Milk, in addition to Seafood Soil Organisms L in addition to Resources
Munsey, Dave, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Chapter 7 Food in addition to Agriculture Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required as long as reproduction or display. Chapter Seven Topics Food in addition to Nutrition Major Food Sources Soil: A Renewable Resource Ways We Use in addition to Abuse Soil Other Agricultural Resources New Crops in addition to Genetic Engineering Sustainable Agriculture World food supplies: 1950 versus 2000 Richer countries: the most common dietary problem is over-nutrition (obesity) Sub-Saharan Africa: food production has not kept pace with rapid population growth Asia: most rapid increase in crop production in addition to this accompanied rapid population growth Part 1: Nutrition in addition to Food Supplies Chronic Hunger in addition to Food Security – within families that don’t get enough to eat, women in addition to children have the poorest diets.
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Countries at risk as long as inadequate nutrition On the left is shown the number in addition to proportion of chronically undernourished people in developing regions. The most hungry people live in East in addition to South Asia. Persistent hunger is a major problem in Africa where the problem is getting worse. Famines are characterized by large-scale food shortages, massive starvation, social disruption, in addition to economic chaos. Some causes are: Environmental conditions – drought, insects, natural disasters National politics – corruption, oppression Armed conflict Economics – price gouging, poverty, l in addition to lessness Essential Nutrients Malnourishment – a nutritional imbalance caused by a lack of specific dietary components or an inability to utilize essential nutrients Starchy foods like corn in addition to polished rice tend to be low in several essential nutrients. Protein deficiency diseases – kwashiorkor, marasmus (see next slide). Iron deficiency (anemia) – is the most common dietary deficiency in the world in addition to is most severe in India. Iodine deficiency – causes goiter, hyperthyroidism
Protein Deficiency Diseases Kwashiorkor – “Displaced Child” – Occurs mainly in children whose diet lacks high-quality protein. Marasmus – “To Waste Away” – Caused by a diet low in both protein in addition to calories. Obesity – The most common dietary problem in wealthy countries is over-nutrition. PART 2: MAJOR FOOD SOURCES Wheat, rice in addition to maize) are responsible as long as the majority of the world’s nutrients. Potatoes, barley, oats in addition to rye are staples at high latitudes with cool, moist climates. Potatoes, barley, oats in addition to rye are staples in cool, moist climates. Cassava, sweet potatoes, in addition to other roots in addition to tubers are staples in warm wet climates. Sorghum in addition to millet are drought resistant in addition to staples in dry regions of Africa. Fruits, vegetables in addition to vegetable oils contain high levels of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber in addition to complex carbonhdrates. Crops
Annual Production of Important Foods Below – Rice plants (a type of grass or grain) Eating a Balanced Diet as Determined by USDA Food Pyramid Meat, Milk, in addition to Seafood Milk in addition to meat are highly prized, but their distribution is inequitable. Developed countries make up 20% of world population, but consume 80% of meat in addition to milk production. Less developed countries produce 60% of world’s milk in addition to meat. About 90% of the grain grown in North America is used to feed cattle, hogs, poultry, in addition to other animals! Seafood is an important protein source in many countries. This food source is threatened by over-harvesting in addition to habitat destruction.
Environmental Issues with Raising Beef Every 16 kg of grain in addition to soybeans fed to beef cattle in feedlots produce 1 kg of edible beef. If we ate grain directly, we would obtain twenty-one times more calories in addition to eight times more protein than we get eating the beef. PART 3:SOIL – A VALUABLE RESOURCE Soil – a complex mixture of weathered minerals, partially decomposed organic matter in addition to a host of living organisms We depend on soil as long as life, yet tend to take this living resource as long as granted. U.S. has > 20,000 different soil types that vary due to influences of parent material, time, topography, climate in addition to organisms About 30-50% of the world’s cropl in addition to s are losing topsoil faster than it can be replaced Soil is a renewable resource, but building good soil is a slow process. Soil Organisms Without soil organisms, the earth would be covered with sterile mineral particles.
Soil Profile – soils are stratified into horizontal layers called soil horizons, in addition to together they make up the soil profile PART 4: WAYS WE USE & ABUSE SOIL Approximately 11% of the earth’s l in addition to area is currently in agricultural production. Up to four times as much could potentially be converted to agricultural use. Much of this additional l in addition to suffers from constraints. Much potential cropl in addition to suffers from constraints. L in addition to Resources Cropl in addition to per person averages only 0.7 acres worldwide. By 2025, this could decline to 0.42 acres. In developed countries, 95% of recent agricultural growth has come from improved crop varieties or increased fertilization, irrigation, etc. L in addition to conversion involves ecological trade-offs Many developing countries are reaching limit of l in addition to s that can be exploited as long as agriculture without unacceptable social in addition to environmental costs.
Areas of Concern as long as Soil Degradation Erosion: The Nature of the Problem Erosion is an important natural process, resulting in redistribution of the products of geologic weathering, in addition to is part of both soil as long as mation in addition to soil loss. Tends to begin subtly. Worldwide, erosion reduces crop production by equivalent of 1% of world cropl in addition to per year. Mechanisms of Erosion Sheet Erosion – Thin, uni as long as m layer of soil removed. Rill Erosion – Small rivulets of running water gather in addition to cut small channels in the soil. Gully Erosion – Rills enlarge to as long as m channels too large to be removed by normal tillage. Streambank Erosion – Washing away of soil from established stream banks.
Mechanisms of Erosion (continued) Wind can equal or exceed water as an erosive as long as ce, especially in a dry climate in addition to on flat l in addition to . Intensive farming practices: Row crops leave soil exposed Weed free-fields Removal of windbreaks No crop-rotation or resting periods Continued monocultures PART 5:OTHER AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES Water Fertilizer Energy Pesticides Agriculture is the biggest global consumer of water, but there are many ways we can reduce water use (above – downward facing sprinklers deliver water more efficiently than upward-facing ones). Fertilizer Lack of nitrogen, potassium, in addition to phosphorus often limits plant growth. Adding nutrients via fertilizer usually stimulates growth in addition to increases crop yields. 1950 – Average of 20 kg/ha fertilizer used. 2000 – Average of 90 kg/ha fertilizer used. Manure in addition to nitrogen-fixing bacteria are alternative methods of replenishing soil nutrients.
Pest Control Biological pests reduce crop yields in addition to spoil as much as half the crops harvested annually. Estimated up to half current crop yields might be lost in the absence of pesticides. Crops grown without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides tend to have lower yield, but have lower operating costs in addition to less ecological damage. Up to 90% of all pesticides never reach target organisms. PART 6: NEW CROPS & GENETIC ENGINEERING At least 3,000 species of plants have been used as long as food at some point in time, but most world food comes from 16 crops Many new or unconventional varieties might be valuable food supplies. Winged-bean – can eat all parts in addition to grows in new, warm habitat Triscale – drought resistant in addition to grows in light, s in addition to y, infertile soil So far, the major improvements in farm production have come from technological advances in addition to modification of a few well-known species. The green revolution refers to the global spread of new, high-yield varieties of plants. These varieties are “High responders” to optimum levels of fertilizer, water, pesticides, light, etc.
Green Revolution “Miracle Crop” Yield Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the splicing a gene from one organism into the chromosome of another. These Transgenic organisms are called Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) produced These new genes result in plants with pest resistance, built in weed control in addition to wider tolerances Opponents fear traits could spread to wild varieties, in addition to increased expense would largely hurt smaller farmers. Transgenic Crop Field Releases
Cocoa pods (left) are growing directly on branches of a shade-tolerant tree native to warm, moist lowl in addition to as long as ests of the tropics. In contrast, coffee is native to cool, mountain as long as ests of the tropics. Organic in addition to Locally Grown Foods
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