Patent Review Different types of IP What are patents Why would you want one What can be patented

Patent Review Different types of IP What are patents Why would you want one What can be patented www.phwiki.com

Patent Review Different types of IP What are patents Why would you want one What can be patented

Shalit Barrett, Ruth, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Patent Review Overview Summary of different types of Intellectual Property What is a patent Why would you want one What are the requirements as long as patentability What are the limits on what can be patented Ownership of inventions A global perspective on patents Commercial exploitation of patented technology Freedom to operate in a patent thicket Different types of IP Trade Marks® Copyright © Designs (registered in addition to unregistered) Know how Commercial secrets in addition to confidentiality Patents

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What are patents Patents are rewarded as long as inventions in addition to to inventors The state can award a 20 year monopoly (maximum duration) in exchange as long as a public explanation of how the invention works The aim is to encourage innovation in addition to disclosure Once 20 years are up the invention can be used freely by anyone else A patent is not a license to print money. Nor does it give you any right to use your invention. It is a powerful legal tool that can enable you to stop anyone else from using your invention Why would you want one Powerful as long as m of protection Protects the idea rather than the implementation No need to show copying. Even an “innocent” infringer can be stopped Patents act as a deterrent to a competitor developing a similar product May strengthen your negotiating position if you infringe someone else’s patent May be a valuable asset in its own right: patents can be licensed in addition to assigned What can be patented In Europe a patentable invention is: New Inventive Not excluded from patentability Capable of industrial application

Novelty An invention is new if it does not as long as m part of the “state of the art” The state of the art includes all disclosures that were made available to the public be as long as e the filing date This includes written in addition to oral disclosures. Anything that has been sold in addition to anything published online. In other words, the entire stock of publicly available knowledge A grace period is applicable in the US. So – Sometimes patent protection is viable in the US when it is no longer available in Europe Inventive Step An invention involves an inventive step if it is not obvious (with regard to the state of the art) There may be an inventive step if the invention solves a problem, provides a surprising result, provides an increase in speed, efficiency etc There must be a technical solution to a technical problem: a divergence from existing technology that would not be developed by routine experimentation or applying known principles Limits on patentability (1) In Europe, the following are not regarded as patentable inventions: Discoveries, scientific theories in addition to mathematical methods; Aesthetic creations; Schemes, rules in addition to methods as long as per as long as ming mental acts, playing games or doing business, in addition to programs as long as computers; Presentations of in as long as mation Patentability is excluded only to the extent the invention relates to such excluded subject matter as such

Limits on patentability (2) In Europe, patents cannot be granted as long as inventions the commercial exploitation of which would be contrary to “ordre public” or morality Examples of “immoral” activities include: processes as long as cloning human beings processes as long as modifying the germ line genetic identity of human beings uses of human embryos as long as industrial or commercial purposes processes as long as modifying the genetic identity of animals which are likely to cause them suffering without any substantial medical benefit to man or animal, in addition to also animals resulting from such processes Limits on patentability (3) In Europe, patents cannot be granted as long as methods of treatment of the human or animal body by surgery or therapy in addition to diagnostic methods practised on the human or animal body. Ownership of inventions The first owner of an invention is its inventor However, if the inventor is an employee in addition to the invention was made in the course of his normal duties, his employer will own the invention. If there is more than one inventor co-ownership is possible. There is no distinction the significance of inventors’ contributions For universities the employment status of students, post-docs, in addition to consultants is often unclear. Staff members will usually be employees. Most universities do not consider PhD students to be employees, ownership will generally be vested with the student, subject to any agreements associated with their funding

A global perspective Patents are territorial: there is no such thing as an international patent A UK patent can give you the right to stop others from making, selling, using in addition to importing the invention in the UK. It gives no rights in other countries A separate patent is required in each country where protection is required In practice, it is usually sufficient to obtain patents in key territories Commercial exploitation Various strategies can be used to extract value from patents: Exclude your competitors from using the invention Develop a thicket of patents to deter competitors from even considering your technology Licensing Use the patents to participate in a cross-licensing patent pool Patents as marketing tools Patents as defensive disclosures Freedom to Operate The consequences as long as infringing a patent can be severe. Damages can be awarded as long as all sales involving use of the invention. Unintentional infringement is not a valid defence If you are concerned it is important to contact a patent attorney in addition to ask: What is protected Is the patent valid Is it in as long as ce Are licenses available A UK patent is not infringed by: Acts done privately in addition to as long as non-commercial purposes Acts done as long as experimental purposes, relating to the subject-matter of the invention

Shalit Barrett, Ruth Elle Contributing Writer www.phwiki.com

Shalit Barrett, Ruth Contributing Writer

Shalit Barrett, Ruth is from United States and they belong to Elle and they are from  Los Angeles, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Shalit Barrett, Ruth deal with the subjects like Beauty; Fashion Accessories; Fashion Industry; Women’s Apparel

Journal Ratings by Rhode Island College

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Rhode Island College and short form of this particular Institution is RI and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.