Patient Education & Assessment Question Question Patient Education Patient Education

Patient Education & Assessment Question Question Patient Education Patient Education www.phwiki.com

Patient Education & Assessment Question Question Patient Education Patient Education

Stinson, Sonya, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Patient Education & Assessment RTEC 93 Venipuncture Question The patient’s doctor ordered the exam, there as long as e the patient must be able to have contrast material Question The patient must have been told by an ordering physician or nurse about what is going to happen during this examination in x-ray.

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Patient Education The way we are told is directly related to the way we will react to the in as long as mation Patient Education Careful explanation in addition to a confident, underst in addition to ing attitude can help the patient relax. A relaxed patient makes venipuncture easier. Vasoconstriction In as long as mation A consent must be provided in terms the patient can underst in addition to . In a language they can underst in addition to . The patient’s questions must be answered in “layman’s” language.

Procedure Explain the steps in the procedure Expected duration Any limitations or restrictions Address any “horror” stories the patient may have heard Post care instructions Results of the Exam Never, Never, Never, Never Never tell the patient that inserting a needle as long as venipuncture does not hurt. Especially children, they will never trust the medical staff again. Always be truthful The technologist must tell the truth in addition to explain that the amount of pain experienced varies with each patient. You will do your best to keep the discom as long as t to a minimum in addition to TRY to get it right the first time.

Shell fish allergies Too bad as long as the patient Not important in Radiology!

Reactions to Contrast Let the patient know what is normal (expected) or abnormal reactions to contrast material Expected: Flash of heat from head to toe Strange or metallic taste in the mouth Feeling like they have to urinate or are urinating Increased heart rate Let me know if You have difficulty breathing You feel itchy You feel nauseous You feel faint Your arm starts to hurt or burn Contrast Reactions If a patient is going to have a contrast reaction it will happen within the first 1-5 minutes after injection. If the patient is going to have a life threatening reaction it will happen almost immediately

Patient Assessment The patient must be assessed be as long as e any medication is administered. In as long as mation about a history of allergy must be obtained in addition to documented. The patient must be screened thoroughly by the technologist as long as contraindications of contrast media. Venipuncture Be as long as e venipuncture is per as long as med, the technologist needs to be aware of: Potential as long as an allergic reaction Contraindications as long as contrast material Site preparation as long as injection Adverse reaction to contrast How to deal with medical emergencies Patient Assessment You need to clear EVERY patient as long as contrast administration. Every time with no exceptions!

Check List Do you have any allergies Patient Assessment Check List BLOOD WORK LAB TESTS to check function of kidneys prior to injection of contrast WATCH THE UPPER LIMITS BUN = BLOOD UREA NITROGEN Merrills pg 214 range is 8 to 25 pg 242 range is 10 – 20 always check with RAD when level above 20 CREATINE levels range: pg 214 (0.6 – 1.5) pg 242 (0.05 – 1.2) always check with RAD when level above 1.2 Indicates function of kidneys Diseases / dehydration / kidney failure

BUN & Creatinine BUN – Blood urea nitrogen Measure the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood Could be elevated due to dehydration Normal = 8-25 mg/dl Creatinine Measures the amount of creatine in the blood Normal = 0.05-1.5 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter) Creatinine clearance vs Creatinine In general, creatinine clearance is the removal of creatinine from the body. In renal physiology, creatinine clearance (CCr) is the volume of blood plasma that is cleared of creatinine per unit time. The result of this test is an important gauge used in assessing excretory function of the kidneys Creatinine clearance vs Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) Clinically, creatinine clearance is a useful measure as long as estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the kidneys. creatinine clearance overestimates actual GFR by 10-20%. This margin of error is acceptable considering the ease with which creatinine clearance is measured

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Normal ranges According to wikipedia.org For most patients, a GFR over 60 ml/min is adequate. But, if the GFR has significantly declined from a previous test result, this can be an early indicator of kidney disease requiring medical intervention. Normal ranges According to wikipedia.org Normal reference ranges as long as creatinine clearance are: Low High Male 55 146 ml/minute/1.73m2 Female 52 134 ml/minute/1.73m2

Patient Assessment Check List Have you had an exam like this be as long as e Have you had iodine be as long as e, x-ray dye, contrast, or an x-ray exam where they have put something in your vein If Yes – did anything bad happen after the injection Allergic to Iodine General Rule: No Contrast Pre – medication is available Check List Check as long as Diabetes Glucophage or Metphormin Renal failure Renal Failure Diabetic Removal of Kidney Anyone over the age of 50 or anyone with a history of renal failure must have there BUN level in addition to creatinine level evaluated. To determine renal function.

Post Care Drink plenty of H20 as long as the rest of the day At least 8 glasses today Other types of fluids are good as well Take Good Care of Your Patient’s!

Stinson, Sonya Contributing Writer

Stinson, Sonya is from United States and they belong to Black Meetings & Tourism and they are from  Winnetka, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Stinson, Sonya deal with the subjects like Black Interest

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