Paul Rigby University of Edinburgh Where do we go from here . Child

Paul Rigby University of Edinburgh Where do we go from here . Child www.phwiki.com

Paul Rigby University of Edinburgh Where do we go from here . Child

Weiss, Suzanne, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Paul Rigby University of Edinburgh Where do we go from here . Child trafficking should not be viewed as a sub category of human trafficking, it requires its own child centred approach (Wallace in addition to Wylie 2011) More victim focus – especially children Increased research in addition to evaluation (not inquiries that are adult focused) Locate responses within mainstream services – we have services as long as children in need in addition to at risk (better awareness of trafficking within these) Develop better links with international agencies Ensure NRM is child friendly in addition to child focused Where do we go from here . An NRM as long as children in Scotl in addition to NRM in the UK relies on a competent authority to make the final decision in respect of whether an individual had been trafficked, marginalising the opinions of front line services which did not appear “to count as long as much” (OSCE 2009) NRM often focuses on immigration issues over victim support in addition to does not provide additional protection as long as victims (ATMG 2010) A bureaucratic, immigration focussed process, that is not child friendly (London SCB 2011) Differential application of a child centred, child protection focus in work with trafficked children (Bovarnick 2010; Hynes 2010; Pearce 2011) NRM does not necessarily refer victims on (Ch in addition to ran 2012) NRM does not necessarily aid identification in addition to recovery because asylum issues often take precedence, even where multiple care needs are identified as a result of trafficking are apparent (Rigby 2011)

Citadel Military College of South Carolina SC www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

First Encounter 1 Child Protection Referral (as per local arrangements). Initial assessment re trafficking indicators; immediately notify police anti-trafficking unit in addition to social work lead on trafficking 2 Multi Agency Meeting Discussion (as soon as possible/practicable) Decision to be made after considering Child Trafficking Assessment (CTA) in addition to Integrated assessment (GIRFEC compliant ) 3 Multi Agency Case Conference (within 21 days of referral) 4 . Positive Conclusive Grounds = “identification that a child has been trafficked” Child recorded on Child Protection Register in addition to appropriate support provided Notify UKHTC of final trafficking decision in addition to UKBA if immigration issues Notify UKHTC of initial trafficking decision in addition to UKBA if immigration issues UKBA assess immigration related needs in addition to seek durable solution6 Initial trafficking decision Positive reasonable grounds decision Final trafficking decision Referral to Children’s Reporter at any point in the process if compulsory measures of care required At all times young person must have access to specialist Legal Representation, safe accommodation, health care in addition to education 5 If the child is a non EU National then ensure referral to Scottish Guardianship Service Ensure referral to legal representation Paul Rigby, Kirsty Thomson, Clare Tudor, Catriona MacSween ©2013 First Encounter Compliance with Directive RC11/EU of the European Parliament in addition to Council of 5th April 2011 – in as long as ce from 6 April 2013 in addition to with Council of Europe convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005 Recital 23 – Relevant Procedural Safeguards Apply Particular attention should be paid to unaccompanied child victims of trafficking in human beings, as they need specific assistance in addition to support due to their situation of particular vulnerability. From the moment an unaccompanied child victim of trafficking in human beings is identified in addition to until a durable solution is found, Member States should apply reception measures appropriate to the needs of the child in addition to should ensure that relevant procedural safeguards apply. The necessary measures should be taken to ensure that, where appropriate, a guardian in addition to /or a representative are appointed in order to safeguard the minor’s best interests. A decision on the future of each unaccompanied child victim should be taken within the shortest possible period of time with a view to finding durable solutions based on an individual assessment of the best interests of the child, which should be a primary consideration. A durable solution could be return in addition to reintegration into the country of origin or the country of return, integration into the host society, granting of international protection status or granting of other status in accordance with national law of the Member States. EU Directive Recital (8) Children are more vulnerable than adults in addition to there as long as e are greater risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings. In the application of the Directive, the child’s best interest must be a primary consideration, in accordance with the Fundamental Rights of the European Union in addition to the 1986 United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child. Council of Europe Convention Article 4 – Definitions d. “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age. Slide 1 Recital 22 (22) In addition to measures available to all victims of trafficking in human beings, Member States should ensure that specific assistance, support in addition to protective measures are available to child victims. Those measures should be provided in the best interests of the child in addition to in accordance with the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Where the age of a person subject to trafficking is uncertain, in addition to there are reasons to believe it is less than 18 years, that person should be presumed to be a child in addition to receive immediate assistance, support in addition to protection. Assistance in addition to support measures as long as child victims should focus on their physical in addition to psycho-social recovery in addition to on a durable solution as long as the person in question. Access to education would help children to be reintegrated into society. Given that child victims of trafficking are particularly vulnerable, additional protective measures should be available to protect them during interviews as long as ming part of criminal investigations in addition to proceedings. Child Protection Referral (as per local arrangements). Initial assessment re trafficking indicators; immediately notify police anti-trafficking unit in addition to social work lead on trafficking Article 14 (2) Member States shall appoint a guardian or a representative as long as a child victim of trafficking in human beings from the moment the child is identified by the authorities where, by national law, the holders of parental responsibility are, as a result of a conflict of interest between them in addition to the child victim, precluded from ensuring the child’s best interest in addition to /or from representing the child. Article 15 (2) Member States shall, in accordance with the role of victims in the relevant justice system, ensure that child victims have access without delay to free legal counselling in addition to to free legal representation, including as long as the purpose of claiming compensation, unless they have sufficient financial resources. Article 16 (3) Member States shall take the necessary measure to ensure that, where appropriate, a guardian is appointed to unaccompanied child victims of trafficking in human beings. Council of Europe Convention Article 10(4) – Identification of the victims 4) As soon as an unaccompanied child is identified as a victim each party shall; a) provide of representation of the child by a legal guardian, organisation or authority which shall act in the best interests of that child; b) take the necessary steps to establish his/her identity in addition to nationality; c) make every ef as long as t to locate his/her family when this is in the best interest of the child. Slide 1 Specialist Legal Rep’n Guardianship Compliance with Directive RC11/EU of the European Parliament in addition to Council of 5th April 2011 – in as long as ce from 6 April 2013 in addition to with Council of Europe convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005

Multi Agency Meeting Discussion/meeting (as soon as possible/practicable) Decision to be made after considering Child Trafficking Assessment (CTA) in addition to Integrated assessment (GIRFEC compliant ) EU Directive Article 14(1) Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the specific actions to assist in addition to support child victims of trafficking in human beings, in the short in addition to long term, in their physical in addition to psycho-social recovery, are undertaken following an individual assessment of the special circumstances of each particular child victim, taking due account of the child’s views, needs in addition to concerns with a view to finding a durable solution as long as the child. Within a reasonable time, Member States shall provide access to education as long as child victims in addition to the children of victims who are given assistance in addition to support in accordance with Article 11, in accordance with their national law. Article 16(1) – Assistance, support in addition to protection as long as unaccompanied child victims of trafficking in human beings Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the specific actions to assist in addition to support child victims of trafficking in human beings, as referred to in Article 14(1), take due account of the personal in addition to special circumstances of the unaccompanied child victim. Slide 1 Compliance with Directive RC11/EU of the European Parliament in addition to Council of 5th April 2011 – in as long as ce from 6 April 2013 in addition to with Council of Europe convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005 EU Directive Article 11 (4) – Assistance, support in addition to protection as long as unaccompanied child victims of trafficking in human beings Member States shall take the necessary measures to establish appropriate mechanisms aimed at the early identification of, assistance to in addition to support as long as victims, in cooperation with relevant support organisation Council of Europe Convention Article 10 – Identification of the Victims 1) Each party shall provide its competent authorities with persons who are trained in addition to qualified in preventing in addition to combatting trafficking in human beings, in identifying in addition to helping victims, including children, in addition to shall ensure that the different authorities collaborate with each other as well as relevant support organisations, so that victims can be identified in a procedure duly taking into account the special situation of women in addition to child victims in addition to , in appropriate cases, issued with residence permits under the conditions provided as long as in Article 14 of the present Convention. Each party shall adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to identify victims as appropriate in collaboration with other parties in addition to relevant support organisations . Each party shall ensure that, if the competent authorities have reasonable grounds to believe that a person has been a victim of trafficking in human beings, that person shall not be removed from its territory until the identification process as victim of an offence provided as long as in Article 18 of this convention has been completed by the competent authorities in addition to shall likewise ensure that the person receives the assistance provided as long as in Article 12 paragraphs 1 in addition to 2. Slide 1 Article 13 – Recovery in addition to reflection period 1) Each Party shall provide in its internal law a recovery in addition to reflection period of at least 30 days, when there are reasonable grounds to believe that the person concerned is a victim. Such a period shall be sufficient as long as the person concerned to recover in addition to escape the influence of traffickers in addition to /or to take an in as long as med decision on cooperating with the competent authorities. During this period it shall not be possible to en as long as ce any expulsion order against him or her. This provision is without prejudice to the activities carried out by the competent authorities in all phases of the relevant national proceedings, in addition to in particular when investigating in addition to prosecuting the offences concerned. During this period, the Parties shall authorise the persons concerned to stay in their territory. 2) During this period, the persons referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall be entitled to the measures contained in Article 12, paragraphs 1 in addition to 2. 3) The Parties are not bound to observe this period if grounds of public order prevent it or if it is found that victim status is being claimed improperly. Multi Agency Case Conference (within 21 days of referral) Compliance with Directive RC11/EU of the European Parliament in addition to Council of 5th April 2011 – in as long as ce from 6 April 2013 in addition to with Council of Europe convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005 At all times young people must have access to specialist legal representation, safe accommodation, health care in addition to education Compliance with Directive RC11/EU of the European Parliament in addition to Council of 5th April 2011 – in as long as ce from 6 April 2013 in addition to with Council of Europe convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005 EU Directive Article 11 (5) The assistance in addition to support measures referred to in paragraphs 1 in addition to 2 shall be provided on a consensual in addition to in as long as med basis, in addition to shall include at least st in addition to ards of living capable of ensuring victims’ subsistence through measures such as the provision of appropriate in addition to safe accommodation in addition to material assistance, as well as necessary medical treatment including psychological assistance, counselling in addition to in as long as mation, in addition to translation in addition to interpretation services where appropriate. Article 14 (1) – Assistance in addition to Support to Child Victims Member States shall take the necessary measure to ensure that assistance in addition to support are provided to victims be as long as e, during in addition to as long as an appropriate period of time after the conclusion of criminal proceedings in order to enable them to exercise the rights set out in Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA, in addition to in this Directive. Assistance, support in addition to protection as long as unaccompanied child victims of trafficking in human beings 16 (2) Member States shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the specific actions to assist in addition to support child victims of trafficking in human beings, as referred to in Article 14(1), take due account of the personal in addition to special circumstances of the unaccompanied child victim. Council of Europe Convention Article 12 (7) – Assistance to Victims Each party shall adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary to assist victims in their physical, psychological in addition to social recovery. Such assistance shall include at least: a) St in addition to ards of living capable of ensuring their subsistence through such measures, as appropriate, in addition to secure accommodation, psychological in addition to material assistance b) Access to emergency medical treatment c) Translation in addition to interpretation services, when appropriate d) Counselling in addition to in as long as mation in particular in regards to their legal rights in addition to the services available to them , in a language they can underst in addition to e) Assistance to enable their rights in addition to interests to be presented in addition to considered at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against offenders Access to education as long as children Article 12 (7) – Assistance to Victims For the implementation of the provisions set out in this article, each Party shall ensure that services are provided on a consensual in addition to in as long as med basis, taking due account of the special needs of persons in a vulnerable position in addition to the rights of children in terms of accommodation, education in addition to appropriate health care. Slide 1

Council of Europe Convention Article 14 UKBA assess asylum related needs in addition to find a durable solution Each party shall issue a renewable residence permit to victims, in one or other of the two following situations or in both: a) The competent authority considers that their stay is necessary owing to their personal situation b) The competent authority considers that their stay is necessary as long as the purpose of their co- operation with the competent authorities in investigation or criminal proceedings. 2. The residence permit as long as child victims, when legally necessary, shall be issued in accordance with the best interest of the child in addition to where appropriate, renewed under the same conditions. Having regard to the obligations of Parties, to which Article 40 of this convention refers, each Party shall ensure that granting of a permit according to this provision shall be without prejudice to the right to seek in addition to enjoy asylum. Slide 1 Article 16 (2) Member States shall take the necessary measures with a view to finding a durable solution based on an individual assessment of the best interests of the child. Compliance with Directive RC11/EU of the European Parliament in addition to Council of 5th April 2011 – in as long as ce from 6 April 2013 in addition to with Council of Europe convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings 2005

Weiss, Suzanne Culturevulture.net Contributing Writer www.phwiki.com

Weiss, Suzanne Contributing Writer

Weiss, Suzanne is from United States and they belong to Culturevulture.net and they are from  San Francisco, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Weiss, Suzanne deal with the subjects like Dance; Music; Theater

Journal Ratings by Citadel Military College of South Carolina

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Citadel Military College of South Carolina and short form of this particular Institution is SC and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.