Pelvis in addition to Contents Bony Pelvis Contents of Pelvic Cavity Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis

Pelvis in addition to Contents Bony Pelvis Contents of Pelvic Cavity Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis

Pelvis in addition to Contents Bony Pelvis Contents of Pelvic Cavity Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis

Milani, Ugo, Contributor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Pelvis in addition to Contents Reproductive Organs in addition to System Bony Pelvis 2 Pelvic = Coxal = Innominate bones fused together Each Pelvic bone Ilium Ischium Pubis 3 parts join to as long as m acetabulum Sacrum in addition to Coccyx help create pelvis in addition to as long as m pelvic cavity Function attaches lower limb to axial skeleton supports viscera transmits weight of upper body Use lab work to learn bony l in addition to marks of pelvis Pg 187 Contents of Pelvic Cavity True Pelvis below pelvic brim space contains part colon rectum bladder uterus/ovaries (females) False Pelvis iliac blades above pelvic brim contains abdominal organs attachment as long as muscles + ligaments to body wall Pelvic Diaphragm = levator ani + coccygeus m

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Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis Cavity is broad, shallow Pelvic inlet oval + outlet round Bones are lighter, thinner Pubic angle larger Coccyx more flexible, straighter Ischial tuberosities shorter, more everted Cavity is narrow, deep Smaller inlet + outlet Bones heavier, thicker Pubic angle more acute Coccyx less flexible, more curved Ischial tuberosities longer, face more medially Female Male Sexual Dimorphism in Pelvis pg 189 Perineum Diamond-shaped area between Pubic symphysis (anteriorly) Coccyx (posteriorly) Ischial tuberosities (laterally) Males contain Scrotum, root of penis, anus Females contain External genitalia, anus pg 744

Development of Reproductive Organs Gonadal ridge: Forms in embryo at 5 weeks Gives rise to gonads Male gonads = testis Female gonads = ovaries Reproductive Embryology Male in addition to Female ducts are both present in early embryo, but only one set develops! Wolffian ducts (Mesonephric): as long as m male ducts vas deferens, epididymis Mullerian ducts (Paramesonephric): as long as m female ducts uterus, oviduct, vagina External genitalia develops from same structures Embryonic structure Male Female Labioscrotal swelling Scrotum Labia major Urethral folds Penile Urethra Labia minor Genital tubercle Penis Clitoris

Male Development Male fetus Testes descend partially at 3 months, finish at 7 months into scrotum Vaginal Process: outpocketing of peritoneum as long as ms tunica vaginalis Gubernaculum: fibrous cord; attaches bottom of scrotum to testes Testes Descent: partly due to shortening of gubernaculum, final descent due to testosterone in addition to maybe increase in intra-abdominal pressure Female Development Ovaries descend into pelvis Vaginal process: outpocketing of peritoneum guides descent Gubernaculum: guides descent of ovaries; attached to labia major caudal portion = round ligament of uterus cranial portion = ovarian ligament Puberty: period where reproductive organs grow in addition to can reproduce Females = around 11 breasts enlarge increase subcutaneous fat in hips in addition to breasts hair in pubic in addition to axillary region oily skin menstruation (1-2 years later) Males = around 13 scrotum + testes enlarge enlargement of larynx increase in body size, musculature hair in facial, pubic, axillary regions oily skin

Reproductive System Genitalia = sex organs Primary = ovaries, testes Secondary = gl in addition to s, ducts, external genitalia pg 5 Female Male Male Reproductive System Primary Sex Organs testes Accessory Sex Organs External Genitalia penis scrotum Ducts Efferent ductules (epididymis) vas deferens ejaculatory duct urethra Gl in addition to s seminal vesicle prostate bulbourethral pg 672 Male Reproductive Anatomy Scrotum sac of skin + superficial fascia contains testes Associated Muscles Dartos: inside skin of scrotum wrinkles skin = warm Cremaster: extends into scrotum from spermatic cord Fibers from internal oblique elevates testes = warm lower testes = cool Tunica vaginalis = light sac covering each testis Tunica albuginea = fibrous deep to tunica vaginalis divides testes into lobules pg 673

Male Reproductive Anatomy: Testes Seminiferous Tubules make-up testes location of spermatogenesis Divided into lobules Tubulus Rectus convergence of seminiferous tubules Rete Testis network of branching tubes leads to epididymis pg 674 Male Reproductive Anatomy: Epididymis Contains efferent ductules: tube from rete testis to duct of epididymis gain ability to swim here smooth muscle layer = ejaculation epithelial layer lined w/stereocilia resorb excess testicular fluid transfer nutrients to sperm in lumen Vas Deferens tube from duct of epididymis to ejaculatory duct Vasectomy-cut vas deferens, close off end pg 704 pg 672, 674 Cell Division Mitosis: cell division with chromosome duplication in addition to division 2 daughter cells = parent Have Diploid = 2n number of chromosomes Occurs in body (somatic) cells Meiosis = Reduction Division: cell division resulting in cells having half the number of chromosomes as parent Have Haploid = n number of chromosomes Occurs in sex cells

Spermatogenesis: production of sperm Stem cells = Spermatogonia (2n) Undergo Mitosis Type A spermatogonia = precursor cells (2n) Type B spermatogonia = primary spermatocytes (2n) Primary spermatocytes undergo Meiosis I 2 secondary spermatocytes (n) 2 Secondary spermatocytes (n) undergo Meiosis II 4 spermatids (n) Spermiogenesis: maturation of spermatids into spermatozoa (sperm) Head (acrosome), midpiece, tail Controlled by FSH (pituitary gl.), Testosterone (testes) Within Seminiferous Tubules Sustenacular (Sertoli) cells: surround spermatogonia in lumen of seminiferous tubules Provide nutrients to spermatogenic cells Move cells toward tubule lumen Secrete testicular fluid Phagocytize cytoplasm shed by developing spermatids Secrete Androgen-binding protein (concentrates testosterone) Secrete Inhibin: hormone slows rate of sperm production Blood-testis barrier: sustenacular cells bound together by tight junctions to prevent escape of membrane antigens from sperm into blood Myoid Cells: layer around seminiferous tubules of smooth muscle Interstitial (Leydig) Cells: in loose CT between seminiferous tubules secrete in addition to rogens (male sex hormones) Spermatogenesis: production of sperm Pg 676

Spermatic Cord Collective name as long as structures associated with the scrotum Passes through inguinal canal Includes Vas Deferens Testicular Arteries + Veins Lymphatic vessels Cremaster muscle fibers Nerves pg 673 AccessoryGl in addition to s Seminal vesicle (paired) posterior surface of bladder contracts during ejaculation empties into vas deferens Functions nourish sperm stimulate uterine contractions suppress immune response enhance sperm motility clot ejaculated semen once in vagina, then liquefy sperm to allow swim Prostate inferior to bladder, anterior to rectum encircles first part of urethra contracts during ejaculation Functions: clot, liquefy, motility pg 672 Accessory Gl in addition to s Bulbourethral (paired) inferior to prostate within urogenital diaphragm empties into spongy urethra Function: produce mucous neutralize urine in urethra lubricate semen as long as passage pg 672

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Penis Male external genitalia Function: delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract Anatomy root = attached end crura-anchored to pubic arch, covered by ischiocavernosus muscle bulb-secured to urogenital diaphragm shaft/body = free, not attached glans penis = enlarged tip prepuce = loose cuff around glans spongy urethra = tube within penis pg 680 Penis (continued) Erectile bodies 3 long strips of erectile tissue around the spongy urethra thick tube covered by dense CT in addition to filled with smooth muscle, CT + vascular spaces Corpus spongiosum distally = glans penis proximally =bulb of penis midventral erectile body Corpora cavernosa proximally = root/crura of penis, covered by ischiocavernosus m. paired, dorsal erectile bodies make up most of mass pg 680 Penis (continued) Arterial Supply = branches of Internal Pudendal (branch of internal iliac) Innervation = branches of Pudendal (from sacral plexus) provide sensory Parasympathetic: engorgement of blood in erectile bodies = erection Sympathetic: contraction of smooth muscle in ducts in addition to gl in addition to s in addition to bulbospongiosum m = ejaculation Above Autonomic from inferior hypogastric plexus

Female Reproductive System Primary Sex Organs Ovaries = gonads Accessory Sex Organs External Genitalia = vulva Labia major + minor Mons pubis Clitoris Ducts Uterine tube = oviducts Vagina Gl in addition to s Greater vestibular gl in addition to pg 684 Female Reproductive Anatomy Ovaries (paired) produce in addition to store ova (eggs) Produce estrogen Tunica albuginea – surrounds each ovary Germinal epithelium-external to tunica albuginea (= mesothelium) Arterial Supply Ovarian & branches of uterine a. Ligaments Ovarian ligament connects ovaries to uterine wall (medial) Suspensory ligament connects ovaries to pelvic wall (lateral) Broad ligament supports uterus, oviducts Round Ligament (part of broad) Attaches uterus to labia majorum pg 685 Oogenesis: production of eggs (ova) Stem cells = oogonia undergo Mitosis all of female’s oogonia produced while fetus Oogonia begin Meiosis I are called primary oocytes (2n) Meiosis I is stalled be as long as e birth During ovulation, Meiosis I completed in addition to Meiosis II begins Once Meiosis II begins, primary oocytes now called secondary oocytes (n) Meiosis II is completed when sperm penetrates egg When Meiosis II is completed, secondary oocyte is now called ovum (egg) Meiosis II results in 1 ovum in addition to 3 polar bodies (degenerate)

Fertilization: sperm meets egg Path of sperm: Seminiferous tubulestubulus rectus rete testisefferent ductules duct of epididymis vas deferens urethrafemale’s vagina uterusoviduct Path of egg: ovaryperitoneal cavityinfundibulum (oviduct) oviduct The meeting: Sperm + egg meet in uterine tube sperm penetrates egg = fertilization Zygoteuterus as long as implantation in uterine wall Last Quiz = Pelvic Cavity & Reproductive Structures DUE Wednesday, 12/15 in my mailbox by 1:00 pm You are to create in addition to h in addition to in: 1) An anatomy quiz It must have 15 questions It must be typed Any as long as mat (other than essay) It should NOT be filled in 2)An Answer Key It should match the quiz It should have the correct answers You will lose points if you do not follow these instructions!

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