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Performance on new task New version of procedure Whole Report
Bethel College St. Paul, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Whole Report ?report? (remember in addition to write down) as many letters from a brief display as possible Average in laboratory is 4.5 out of nine Class average 2.something New version of procedure Altered procedure: write one row of letters only?not all of the letters ?cued? report by saying ?top,? ?middle,? or ?bottom? Actual letters so that remember ?L? ?T? ?W? With whole report, class average was 2.1 / 9 (~23%) Performance on new task New class average alongside new procedure was 2 letters (=2/3 or 67%) Huge improvement in performance With cue, we seem so that ?focus on? some of the letters in addition to ignore others; focusing in our image of the display (a memory of the display)
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Rapidly fading memory of the display A mental picture (an image) of the display of letters is created at first But, the image only lasts a very short period of time Image lasts long enough so that report one row of letters (about 3 letters), but not long enough so that report all of the letters (9 letters) Sensory memory It?s the rapidly fading image (or memory) of the display ?sensory? = tied so that your senses With vision, it?s called visual sensory memory (aka, the ?icon?) Difference in performance between the original procedure in addition to the modified procedure (?partial? report) reveals the existence of sensory memory Other sensory memories One in consideration of hearing: audition ? auditory sensory memory (the ?echo?) Auditory sensory memory only lasts up so that 2 seconds All sensory memories last in consideration of a few seconds or less
Establishing existence of sensory memory When partial report performance is better than whole report performance, then that indicates the presence of sensory memory In class demo, partial report (67%) was higher than whole report (23%), showing the existence of visual sensory memory Sperling (1960) experiments He established the existence of visual sensory memory Last graph shows that visual sensory memory lasts in consideration of only about « second The icon is an example of a mental structure
Overview Motion-compensated hybrid coder Proposed Improvements over H.263 Multiple Channel Realizations Channel Realizations Error Concealment Distortion Measure Mode Selection Channel Decoder Experimental Setup Performance Measurement (I) Performance Measurement (II) Number of Realizations Error Propagation (I) Error Propagation (II) Conclusions
Attention in addition to the report task T L W A J Q F P O Displayed these letters briefly, then cued report so that report one row only The cue allows you so that select one row in addition to ignore others (i.e., selective attention) Kinds of attention Selective attention (as in partial report task): focus on one thing in addition to ignore another Divided attention: trying so that pay attention so that more than one thing at a time (i.e., multitasking) Divided Attention Serial versus parallel processing E.g., two example tasks: taking notes in addition to mentally planning dinners in consideration of each night of coming week One possibility: people have no problem doing these two things simultaneously Means that two separate series of processing steps occurring at the same time (called ?parallel? processing)
More on divided attention If people cannot do the tasks simultaneously, then not parallel processing One possibility is serial processing (serial means working on only one thing at a time) Potential Causes of serial processing Physical: only have two eyes, only physically look at one thing at a time, only have two hands, etc. Mental: ?interference? between mental processes, structures, or representations Mechanisms of interference Capacity theory vs. bottleneck theory Capacity theory = mind contains a limited amount of mental resources (kind of like mental fuel) Bottleneck theory = bottleneck in information processing where only some information can get through
Mendivil, Sandra Higher Education Reporter
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