Photons in addition to matter: absorption Gas in our galaxy Gas in other galaxies Gas close to AGN Winds from accretion disc

Photons in addition to matter: absorption Gas in our galaxy Gas in other galaxies Gas close to AGN Winds from accretion disc www.phwiki.com

Photons in addition to matter: absorption Gas in our galaxy Gas in other galaxies Gas close to AGN Winds from accretion disc

Bishop, Marty, Midday Disc Jockey has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Photons in addition to matter: absorption Chris Done University of Durham Gas in our galaxy Gas in other galaxies Look through host galaxy when looking at AGN or x-ray sources in other galaxies

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Gas close to AGN Cold gas associated with nucleus: torus Ionised gas BLR/NLR clouds Ionised gas as scattering region where see polarised BLR in some Seyfert 2’s Winds from accretion disc Proga 2003 Disc in addition to accretion curtain Intermediate polars (DQ Hers) as long as white dwarf accretion Accreting millisecond pulsars (LMXB) in addition to accretion powered pulsars (HMXRB) as long as neutron stars (probably highly ionised)

Disk in addition to accretion curtain Polars (WD only) Accretion column Magdziarz & Done 1999

X-ray absorption: neutral Characterised by NH – number of hydrogen atoms along a tube of area 1 cm2 between us in addition to source 1cm2 X-ray absorption: neutral Characterised by NH – number of hydrogen atoms along a tube of area 1 cm2 between us in addition to source t= s n R = s NH s cm2 X-ray absorption: neutral Characterised by NH – number of hydrogen atoms along a tube of area 1 cm2 between us in addition to source But abundances of other elements matter in X-ray 1021 1022 1023

X-ray absorption: neutral H edge 13.6 eV = 0.013keV Higher Z elements have higher edge energy as long as K shell electron as higher charge means inner electrons more tightly bound Outer electrons shielded so ionisation energy is less CNO K 0.28, 0.40, 0.53 keV ionisation 9, 11 in addition to 14 eV Fe K & L edges at 7.1 in addition to 0.7 keV n=1 K shell n=2 L shell n=3 M shell etc X-ray absorption: neutral Higher Z elements less abundant so total absorption cross section decreases with energy Log s Log E H He C N O X-ray absorption: neutral Higher Z elements have higher edge energies as inner electrons more tightly bound CNO K 0.28, 0.40, 0.53 keV mid Z K shells Ne, Mg Si, S 0.9, 1.30, 1.8, 2.5 keV Fe K edges at 7.1 keV in addition to L shell edge at 0.7 Higher Z elements less abundant so total absorption cross section decreases with energy H H+He +CNO +Fe +Ne,Si,S NH=1022 cm-2

X-ray absorption: ionisation Leaves ion! Ion can recombine if more free electrons than X-ray photons Then its back to neutral be as long as e the next X-ray comes. So X-rays only see neutral material BUT what if the X-ray comes be as long as e the electron. Ion is not neutral in addition to all edge energies are higher as unbalanced charge n=1 K shell n=2 L shell n=3 M shell etc X-ray absorption: ionised Higher Z elements less abundant so total absorption cross section decreases with energy Log s Log E H He C N O Photoionised absorption: edges if completely ionised then no edges left!! Just power law ionised edges are higher energy net charge so more tightly bound H like edge at 0.0136 Z2 keV (energy charge/r) so high Z elements need more energy to completely ionise. Fe K He, H-like 8.7, 9.2 keV (XXV in addition to XXVI). if dominant then everything else is ionised! Nh=1023 x=103 x=102 x=1

Photoionisation: populations which ions Balance photoionisation (heating) with recombination (cooling) Depends mostly on ratio of photon to electron density! ng/Ne = L/(hn 4p r2 c Ne) = x / (hn 4p c) x = L/ (Ner2) Nh, x, AND spectral shape Ni + g Ni+1 + e Ni ng s = Ni+1 Nea(T) Ni+1 = ng s Ni Nea(T) Photoionisation: populations Another way to define is ratio of photon pressure to gas pressure Prad = X = L 1 Pgas 4pr2c nkT = x / (4pckT) Ni + g Ni+1 + e Ni ng s = Ni+1 Nea(T) Ni+1 = ng s Ni Nea(T) Photoionised absorption: edges if completely ionised then no edges left!! Just power law ionised edges are higher energy net charge so more tightly bound H like edge at 0.0136 Z2 keV (energy charge/r) so high Z elements need more energy to completely ionise. Fe K He, H-like 8.7, 9.2 keV (XXV in addition to XXVI). if dominant then everything else is ionised! Nh=1023 x=103 x=102 x=1

Photoionised absorption: edges Multiple edges as generally multiple ion states not just one Nh=1023 x=103 x=102 x=1 Lines: even neutral material! K edge energy is 1s – generally not that much bigger than 1s-2p Ka line eg H edge at 13.6, Lya 10.2 eV can see (just) as long as C N O with good resolution data but EW is generally small compared to edge don’t see this from neutral high Z elements as L shells filled as long as Z> Ne (Si, S Fe ) but can when ionise! Which also means hotter material 1-2 Ka 1-3 Kb 1-4 Kg 1- K Lines: ionised! See 1s-2p if got hole in L shell One electron less than filled 2p shell ie one electron less than neon like Still need at least 1 electron so F-like to H-like has LOTS of lines He like generally biggest cross-section O: 0.6keV Fe: 6.7 keV 1-2 Ka 1-3 Kb 1-4 Kg 1- K

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Ionised absorption: lines!!! BIG difference: LINES absori does ionisation balance in addition to corresponding edge absorption xion does ionisation balance (better as balances heat/cooling) in addition to line + edge absorption Use this where material close enough to X-rays to be ionised!! Evidence as long as Winds in AGN: X-ray absorption See ionised absorption lines in soft X-ray spectra of around 50% of nearby AGN Reynolds et al 1997 ‘warm absorbers’ ie ionised material With good grating spectra see its multiphase Blustin et al 2005 – eg NGC3783 has at least 3 different x V~500 km/s outflow NGC3783 Netzer et al 2003 Compton temperature X-ray heating of material from compton up in addition to downscattering De/e=4Q – e Integrate over number of photons N(e) at each energy N(e) De = 0 = N(e) (4Q -e) e de Compton temperature TIC=511 QIC 4QIC= N(e) e2 de / N(e) ede Log nfn Log n

Compton temperature X-ray heating of material from compton up in addition to downscattering De/e=4Q – e Integrate over number of photons N(e) at each energy N(e) De = 0 = N(e) (4Q -e) e de Compton temperature TIC=511 QIC 4QIC= N(e) e2 de / N(e) ede Log nfn Log n Thermally driven Winds Begelman McKee Shields 1983 Direct illumination or scattering from wind X-ray source irradiates top of disc, heating it to Compton temperature TIC depends only on spectrum – Lirr only controls depth of layer Thermally driven Winds Hot so exp in addition to s as pressure gradient – corona bound if v2 =3kTIC/m RIC driven by pressure gradient so exp in addition to s on cs with v=(3kTIC/mp) = (GM/R) Wind velocity typically that of gravitational potential from where it is launched Begelman McKee Shields 1983 R=RIC

Gas close to AGN Also irradiate torus Same TIC, but much further out so very easy to launch wind from torus Probable origin as long as some/most of the ‘warm absorbers’ seen in AGN Krolik & Kris 2001, Blustin et al 2005 Evidence as long as Winds in AGN: X-ray absorption See ionised absorption lines in soft X-ray spectra of around 50% of nearby AGN Reynolds et al 1997 ‘warm absorbers’ ie ionised material With good grating spectra see its multiphase Blustin et al 2005 – eg NGC3783 has at least 3 different x V~500 km/s outflow NGC3783 Netzer et al 2003 Conclusions Continuum source gets absorbed if interesects material photoelectric absorption edges in addition to lines Material can be just line of sight – unrelated, generally neutral But continuum source illuminating disc/torus gives rise to absorbing material in line of sight via winds – photoionised Equatorial disc wind thermal in BHB thermal/radiation pressure/UV line driven in AGN B field always helps! AGN also have wind from torus – warm absorbers

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