Physics 201 College Physics Akhdiyor Sattarov Lectures MWF 1:50-2:40 E-mail a-s
Woodson, Darren, Football Analyst has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Physics 201 College Physics Akhdiyor Sattarov Lectures MWF 1:50-2:40 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 458-7967 office / 845-6015 lab Office Hours: or by appointment, Office: MPHYS 303 Web-site: http://people.physics.tamu.edu/a-sattarov/ Text: Physics 8th ed by Young & Geller with Mastering Physics; PHYS 202 Lab Manual Optional: Student Solutions Manual, Student Student Guide Grading: 4 exams 60%; Final (comprehensive) 20%; Lab10%; Recitation 5%; Homework (Mastering Phys) 5% You must achieve 70% or better in the laboratory in order to pass the course. If your grade on the Final Exam is higher than your lowest grade on one of the four exams during the semester, your grade on the Final will replace that one lowest exam grade in computing the course grade. Sept. 3 is last day to drop with no record. Nov. 5 is the last day to Q-drop. Final Exam is December 14 2010 3:30pm-5:30pm
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To provide underst in addition to ing of the physical world by developing theories based on experiments Physical theories model real world in addition to are statement of what has been observed in addition to provide prediction of new observations that can be confirmed or turned down by experiment Broad in addition to solidly established by experiment physical theory physical law Physical Law True, there is no contradiction to observation Universal apply everywhere in the universe Simple Stable unchanged since first discovered The Goal of Physics How do we analyze physical system Simplification of a complicated system depending on our goals we exclude/neglect unimportant/weak effects isolate system of interest. Example: A small rock thrown upward we can neglect the air resistance Very often we use point particle idealized object that lacks spatial extensions Example: Earth orbiting around Sun, we can treat Earth as point particle because the radius of Earth much smaller than the dimensions of the system St in addition to ards in addition to Units Physical quantity – Quantity used to describe an observation of physical phenomenon Each physical quantity is represented with respect to reference st in addition to ard Unit of the quantity Some Physical quantities are defined only by describing a procedure as long as measuring them operational definition Some physical quantities can be derived from other quantities Most fundamental quantities: International System Length meter=distance traveled in vacuum by light during 1/299792458 of sec Time second-9,192,631700 times the period of oscillations of radiation from the cesium atom. Mass kilogram=90% Platinum 10% iridium alloy cylinder h=d=0.03917m
Since we will work with very small in addition to very big systems we have to have conversion multipliers Power of 10 Prefix Abbreviation 10-6 micro- m 10-3 milli- m 10-2 centi- c 103 kilo- k 106 mega- M 109 giga- G Using prefixes 1cm=1 centimeter=1×10-2m=0.01m thickness of a notebook 1fm=1 femtometer=10-15m radius of a nucleus 1ns=1 nanosecond=10-9s time required as long as light to travel about 1ft. 1ms=1 millisecond=10-3s – time required as long as sound to travel about 1ft. 1kg=1 kilogram=103g 1Mg=1000kg=106g mass of water that has volume of 1m3 at 4oC Dimensional analysis In Physics, the word dimension denotes the physical nature of a quantity Example: distance between 2 points can be measured in meters, centimeters, feet etc. different ways of expressing the dimension of length it is often necessary to derive mathematical expression or equation or check its correctness. A useful procedure as long as doing this is called dimensional analysis. Dimensional analysis makes use of the fact that dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities Example: Volume of a cube of water, L=2m Example: Find mass of water, density of water 997 kg/m3 Example: Express speed of light 3×108 m/s in km/h
Always use units in calculations! You can not add or subtract quantities that have different units It will help you to check dimensional consistency of your result!! 3kg+15m means something is wrong Mass=r2V=(997kg/m3)2 8m3= kg2/m3 – something is wrong Precision in addition to Significant figures No physical quantity can be determined with complete accuracy Knowing experimental uncertainties in any measurements is very important Accuracy of measurements depends on the sensitivity of the devices, the skill of the investigator In many cases result from one measurement is used in derivation of other physical quantities We have to develop basic in addition to reliable method of keeping track of those uncertainties in subsequent calculations. Example: Let we have to measure area of a rectangular plate with a meter stick. Suppose that we can measure particular side with 0.1cm accuracy. Suppose that side a=16.3cm in addition to side b=4.5cm. Side a=16.3+/-0.1 cm, side b=4.5+/-0.1cm Mid Area=16.3cm x 4.5cm = 73.35cm2 High Area=16.4cm x 4.6cm = 75.44cm2 Low Area=16.2cm x 4.4cm = 71.28cm2 so our area 73+/-2cm note that the answer has two significant figures In our example First term had 3 in addition to the second 2 significant figures In multiplying (dividing) two or more quantities, the number of significant figures in the final result is no greater than the number of significant figures in the term that had fewest significant figures. In addition (subtraction) two or more quantities the final result can have no more decimal places than the term with fewest decimal places Example: 128.+5.35=133.
Scalar in addition to vector Scalar physical quantity is a quantity described by single number, examples are time, mass, density, charge etc. Vector quantity is a quantity that is described by a magnitude in addition to a direction. Graphically vector is represented as an arrow pointing in given direction in addition to having length that is proportional to the magnitude of the vector. Symbolically vector is represented by a label with small arrow sign over it. Example: Position vector shows a direction in addition to how far from the reference point the object resides. Example: Displacement vector shows change in position, from starting point to final Magnitude of a vector Let have several vectors We say that vectors are parallel We say that vectors are antiparallel
Product of a scalar in addition to a Vector Resulting Vector is collinear (parallel or anti parallel) to the original vector. Adding vectors: Tail to tip method = Draw the vectors, with proper scaling Draw the second one putting its tail to the tip of the first one Draw the resultant from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the second One can change the order of the vectors Parallelogram method 2 vectors are along two sides of a parallelogram Resulting vector along the diagonal of the parallelogram that starts at the tails of the vectors Multiplying sum of two vectors by scalar Using two similar triangles, we find that the bigger triangle is just scaled by s.
Sum of 3 vectors Subtraction of vectors Direction vector Note: It is in the direction of the vector A, but has a unit length in addition to it is dimensionless. Components of vectors (2d) Let we have some vector We define some reference frame A tail of the vector positioned at O. Define two component vectors: Q Components are not vectors They can be positive in addition to negative, depending on an angle Let define angle between vector in addition to positive x-direction A vector can be represented in 2 ways a) by its components b) By its magnitude in addition to angle with positive x-direction (in 3d case also angle with positive z-direction)
Example: A person starts from point A in addition to arrives at point B. Find components, magnitude of the position vectors in addition to angle between the vector in addition to x-axis. Find the displacement vector. X (km) Y (km) Ax=2km Ay=3km Bx=-2km By=-1km QA QB Pay attention!! You may get this angle Multiplication by a scalar in addition to addition of vectors becomes very simple x-componet y-componet x-componet y-componet
Example1.50 A postal employee drives a delivery truck along the route shown in figure below. Use components to determine the magnitude in addition to direction of the trucks resultant displacement. Then check the reasonableness of your answer by sketching a graphical sum. Kinematics describes the motion of object without causes that leaded to the motion We are not interested in details of the object (it can be car, person, box etc ). We treat it as dimensionless point We want to describe position of the object with respect to time we want to know position at any given time Path (trajectory) imaginary line along which the object moves x t
Motion along a straight line We will always try to set up our reference frame in a such way that motion is along or x or y coordinate axis. The direction of the axis is up to us. Position vector then can be represented by a single component, the other components are equal to zero. x1=19m,t1=1s x2=277m,t1=4s Motion along a straight line x component of a displacement vector as long as time interval t1 t2 is equal Dx=x2-x1 Note that we can define another reference frame, position vector will be different in each frame, not a displacement vector
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