Contents

## Physics as long as Scientists in addition to Engineers Physics Classical Physics Objectives of Physics Theory in addition to Experiments

Acee, Kevin, Football Reporter – Chargers has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Physics as long as Scientists in addition to Engineers Introduction in addition to Chapter 1 Physics Fundamental Science Concerned with the fundamental principles of the Universe Foundation of other physical sciences Has simplicity of fundamental concepts Divided into five major areas Classical Mechanics Relativity Thermodynamics Electromagnetism Optics Quantum Mechanics Classical Physics Mechanics in addition to electromagnetism are basic to all other branches of classical in addition to modern physics Classical physics Developed be as long as e 1900 Our study will start with Classical Mechanics Also called Newtonian Mechanics or Mechanics Modern physics From about 1900 to the present

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Objectives of Physics To find the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena To use these laws to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments Express the laws in the language of mathematics Mathematics provides the bridge between theory in addition to experiment Theory in addition to Experiments Should complement each other When a discrepancy occurs, theory may be modified Theory may apply to limited conditions Example: Newtonian Mechanics is confined to objects traveling slowly with respect to the speed of light Try to develop a more general theory Classical Physics Overview Classical physics includes principles in many branches developed be as long as e 1900 Mechanics Major developments by Newton, in addition to continuing through the 18th century Thermodynamics, optics in addition to electromagnetism Developed in the latter part of the 19th century Apparatus as long as controlled experiments became available

Modern Physics Began near the end of the 19th century Phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics Includes theories of relativity in addition to quantum mechanics Special Relativity Correctly describes motion of objects moving near the speed of light Modifies the traditional concepts of space, time, in addition to energy Shows the speed of light is the upper limit as long as the speed of an object Shows mass in addition to energy are related Quantum Mechanics Formulated to describe physical phenomena at the atomic level Led to the development of many practical devices

Measurements Used to describe natural phenomena Needs defined st in addition to ards Characteristics of st in addition to ards as long as measurements Readily accessible Possess some property that can be measured reliably Must yield the same results when used by anyone anywhere Cannot change with time St in addition to ards of Fundamental Quantities St in addition to ardized systems Agreed upon by some authority, usually a governmental body SI Systéme International Agreed to in 1960 by an international committee Main system used in this text Fundamental Quantities in addition to Their Units

Quantities Used in Mechanics In mechanics, three basic quantities are used Length Mass Time Will also use derived quantities These are other quantities that can be expressed in terms of the basic quantities Example: Area is the product of two lengths Area is a derived quantity Length is the fundamental quantity Length Length is the distance between two points in space Units SI meter, m Defined in terms of a meter the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a given time See Table 1.1 as long as some examples of lengths Mass Units SI kilogram, kg Defined in terms of a kilogram, based on a specific cylinder kept at the International Bureau of St in addition to ards See Table 1.2 as long as masses of various objects

St in addition to ard Kilogram Time Units seconds, s Defined in terms of the oscillation of radiation from a cesium atom See Table 1.3 as long as some approximate time intervals Reasonableness of Results When solving a problem, you need to check your answer to see if it seems reasonable Reviewing the tables of approximate values as long as length, mass, in addition to time will help you test as long as reasonableness

Number Notation When writing out numbers with many digits, spacing in groups of three will be used No commas St in addition to ard international notation Examples: 25 100 5.123 456 789 12 US Customary System Still used in the US, but text will use SI Prefixes Prefixes correspond to powers of 10 Each prefix has a specific name Each prefix has a specific abbreviation

Prefixes, cont. The prefixes can be used with any basic units They are multipliers of the basic unit Examples: 1 mm = 10-3 m 1 mg = 10-3 g Model Building A model is a system of physical components Useful when you cannot interact directly with the phenomenon Identifies the physical components Makes predictions about the behavior of the system The predictions will be based on interactions among the components in addition to /or Based on the interactions between the components in addition to the environment Models of Matter Some Greeks thought matter is made of atoms No additional structure JJ Thomson (1897) found electrons in addition to showed atoms had structure Ruther as long as d (1911) central nucleus surrounded by electrons

Models of Matter, cont Nucleus has structure, containing protons in addition to neutrons Number of protons gives atomic number Number of protons in addition to neutrons gives mass number Protons in addition to neutrons are made up of quarks Models of Matter, final Quarks Six varieties Up, down, strange, charmed, bottom, top Fractional electric charges + of a proton Up, charmed, top of a proton Down, strange, bottom Modeling Technique Important technique is to build a model as long as a problem Identify a system of physical components as long as the problem Make predictions of the behavior of the system based on the interactions among the components in addition to /or the components in addition to the environment Important problem-solving technique to develop

Basic Quantities in addition to Their Dimension Dimension has a specific meaning it denotes the physical nature of a quantity Dimensions are denoted with square brackets Length [L] Mass [M] Time [T] Dimensions in addition to Units Each dimension can have many actual units Table 1.5 as long as the dimensions in addition to units of some derived quantities Dimensional Analysis Technique to check the correctness of an equation or to assist in deriving an equation Dimensions (length, mass, time, combinations) can be treated as algebraic quantities add, subtract, multiply, divide Both sides of equation must have the same dimensions Any relationship can be correct only if the dimensions on both sides of the equation are the same Cannot give numerical factors: this is its limitation

Operations with Significant Figures Adding or Subtracting When adding or subtracting, the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places in any term in the sum. Example: 135 cm + 3.25 cm = 138 cm The 135 cm limits your answer to the units decimal value Operations With Significant Figures Summary The rule as long as addition in addition to subtraction are different than the rule as long as multiplication in addition to division For adding in addition to subtracting, the number of decimal places is the important consideration For multiplying in addition to dividing, the number of significant figures is the important consideration Rounding Last retained digit is increased by 1 if the last digit dropped is greater than 5 Last retained digit remains as it is if the last digit dropped is less than 5 If the last digit dropped is equal to 5, the retained digit should be rounded to the nearest even number Saving rounding until the final result will help eliminate accumulation of errors

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