Piezoelectric Effect Internal working Piezoelectricity Artificial materials Configurations

Piezoelectric Effect Internal working Piezoelectricity Artificial materials Configurations www.phwiki.com

Piezoelectric Effect Internal working Piezoelectricity Artificial materials Configurations

Violet Kennedy, Jenn, Executive Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Piezoelectric Effect Appearance of an electric potential across certain faces of a crystal when it is subjected to mechanical pressure The word originates from the greek word “piezein”, which means “to press” Discovered in 1880 by Pierre Curie in quartz crystals. Conversely, when an electric field is applied to one of the faces of the crystal it undergoes mechanical distortion. Examples — Quartz, Barium titanate, tourmaline Internal working The effect is explained by the displacement of ions in crystals that have a nonsymmetrical unit cell When the crystal is compressed, the ions in each unit cell are displaced, causing the electric polarization of the unit cell. Because of the regularity of crystalline structure, these effects accumulate, causing the appearance of an electric potential difference between certain faces of the crystal. When an external electric field is applied to the crystal, the ions in each unit cell are displaced by electrostatic as long as ces, resulting in the mechanical de as long as mation of the whole crystal. Piezoelectricity displacement of electrical charge due to the deflection of the lattice in a naturally piezoelectric quartz crystal The larger circles represent silicon atoms, while the smaller ones represent oxygen. Quartz crystals is one of the most stable piezoelectric materials.

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Artificial materials polycrystalline, piezoceramics are man made materials which are as long as ced to become piezoelectric by applying large electric field. high charge sensitivity materials available which operate at 1000 F (540 C) characteristics vary with temperature Configurations Red indicates the crystal Arrows indicate the direction of applied as long as ce the compression design features high rigidity, making it useful as long as implementation in high frequency pressure in addition to as long as ce sensors Grey- test structure. Red- piezoelectric crystals Blue- Sensor housing The black electrode is where the charge from the crystals accumulates be as long as e it is conditioned by the yellow, micro-circuit. pressure sensors utilize a diaphragm to collect pressure, which is simply as long as ce applied over an area.

Signal Conditioning Signals from the sensors can be processed by the micro-electric circuit either internally or externally. Conditioning involves the conversion of the signal to a low impedance voltage, amplification in addition to filtering. Pressure Sensor A typical Quartz crystal sensor with inbuilt micro-electric circuitry in addition to a diaphragm. These sensors measure dynamic pressures, in addition to are not generally used as long as static pressure sensing. Proper in addition to accurate alignment of the sensor is very important as long as higher sensitivity. Sensors used in high temperature conditions(e.g. combustion chamber of an engine) use either recess mounting, baffled diaphragm or thermal protection coatings to reduce negative signal effects. Pros in addition to Cons Have a high Stiffness value in addition to produce a high output with very little strain. Ideal as long as rugged use. Excellent linearity over a wide amplitude. Ideal as long as continuous online condition monitoring smart systems. Can be used only as long as dynamic pressure sensing as in case of static sensing the signals will decay away. Operation over long cables may affect frequency response in addition to introduce noise in addition to distortion, the cables need to be protected.

Typical Application-Combustion Monitoring Pressures developed during the combustion process is continuously measured by sensors mounted on the cylinder heads. Continuous Pressure monitor(CPM) systems are the basic data acquisition in addition to data reduction software in addition to hardware units. CPM-Features Continuous updating of Peak Pressure, Location of Peak, in addition to St in addition to ard deviation of Peak Pressure Continuous calculations of combustion quality in addition to engine balance. Serial communications with SCADA(Supervisory Control in addition to Data Acquisition systems. Running trends of displayed values. CAPA System Uses a PMI Pressure analyzer(Piezoelectric) to display real time parameters of the engine using P-V displays. The pressure is calculated from the sensor outputs in addition to the volume is obtained from an advanced crank angle encoder which gives the crank positions from which the displaced volume is calculated. Expert systems send signals to actuate other controllers (electronic governors, fuel p/p’s,exhaust v/v actuators, lubricators etc) as long as optimal per as long as mance on a real time basis. Each controller unit has the processing power to process the signals in addition to accordingly produce output as long as the individual actuator to change various parameter settings continuously.

P-V Diagram An example of a P-V diagram display on a Windows OS. Corresponding TDC diagrams can also be obtained to observe ignition characteristics. Peak pressure indicator display at TDC,provides ignition characteristics. Display as long as a 4 unit engine. The signal outputs from these sensors are transmitted to other controllers to actuate in addition to adjust critical parameter settings in order to achieve efficient combustion. WINS PDD WINS PDD (Wireless Integrated Network Systems Prognostic Data Delivery System) is an end-to-end network solution enabling continuous vehicle diagnostic monitoring based on Sensoria Corporation’s WINS technology. The WINS PDD solution provides an unprecedented level of access to vehicles as long as analysis of vehicle per as long as mance, reliability, in addition to maintenance status.

Sensoria –WINS Network Consists of Network Routers, Internet Access points in addition to E –comm products Wireless Integrated Network Systems(WINS) enables networks to provide connectivity to in addition to within the automobile, the home, in addition to monitor equipment in addition to processes. Network Routers are real-time processors embedded in vehicles in addition to assets that create a secure network bridge between multiple embedded networks in addition to Wide Area Networks, including the Internet. Internet Access Points are real-time data routers in addition to communication servers that interface embedded Network Routers to the Internet or an Enterprise Network via a Sensoria 2.4GHz local area RF Modem. The e-Service Products include the WINS Server, based on Windows NT, WINS Database, based on Microsoft SQL Server. The WINS Server is responsible as long as managing the entire network in addition to providing Internet access to the WINS Database IDB-C is the first of a family of in-vehicle networks, in addition to is expected to be deployed in some model year 2002 vehicles. IDB-C compliant devices will soon enter the market. The IDB-C Reference Plat as long as m provides the hardware interface between the various media being integrated. The Sensoria IDB-C Reference Plat as long as m is the AMI-C (Automobile Multimedia Interface collaboration) reference plat as long as m used to develop the IDB-C reference drivers available as part of the AMI-C specification.

Hardware Features Infineon C164CI 16 bit Processor 20 MHz clock rate 256kB SRAM 256kB Flash ROM CAN 2.0B controller 250 kbps raw data rate RS-232 Interface 115.2 kbps UART DB-9 serial interface 3 channel LISA interface Left, Right, in addition to microphone channels Optional pre-amp as long as microphone

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Violet Kennedy, Jenn Executive Producer

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