Plant Nomenclature Michael G. Simpson International Botanical Congress Name changes: Name changes:

Plant Nomenclature Michael G. Simpson International Botanical Congress Name changes: Name changes: www.phwiki.com

Plant Nomenclature Michael G. Simpson International Botanical Congress Name changes: Name changes:

Haynes, Aubrey, Morning Anchor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Plant Nomenclature Michael G. Simpson What is Nomenclature Assignment of plant names utilizing a as long as mal system. What is the name of the work providing the rules in addition to recommendations as long as plant nomenclature International Code of Nomenclature as long as algae, fungi, in addition to plants (ICN) ( as long as merly International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN) What organisms are covered by the ICN L in addition to plants, “algae,” in addition to fungi (+slime molds, water molds) What are two basic activities governed by the ICN 1) Naming new taxa 2) Determining the correct name as long as previously named taxa (altered in some way) Legitimate Names in accordance with the rules of the ICN Illegitimate Names violate one or more rules of the ICN What are legitimate in addition to illegitimate names

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International Botanical Congress Last held in Melbourne, Australia – July 2011. Next: Shenzhen, China, 23–29 July 2017. How are changes to the ICN made What are the Principles of Plant Nomenclature 1) Botanical nomenclature is independent of Zoological in addition to Bacteriological nomenclature. 2) The application of botanical names is determined by means of nomenclatural types. 3) Botanical nomenclature is based upon priority of publication. 4) Each taxon of a particular circumscription, position, in addition to rank can have only one correct name, the earliest in accordance with the rules. [=Fundamental Principle!] 5) Scientific names are treated as Latin. 6) The rules in addition to regulations of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are retroactive. What are the Principles of Plant Nomenclature

Rules = required Recommendations = not required What are the rules vs. regulations of the ICN What is a scientific name = the names assigned by the rules of the ICN In Latin language E.g., Malpighia, Alliaceae, Zingiberales Who first consistently used binomials Binomial = “two names” E.g., as long as Quercus dumosa Nuttall Quercus = genus name (capitalized) dumosa = specific epithet (not capitalized) Quercus dumosa = species name Nuttall = author Linnaeus What is the correct as long as m of binomials

Quercus dumosa Nuttall Scientific Names usually italicized or underlined: Quercus dumosa Nuttall Scientific Names may be bolded: Name the reasons that common names are disadvantageous Only scientific names are universal, used the same world-wide; e.g., Ipomoea -Woodbine, Morning Glory 2) Common names are not consistent. a) A taxon may have more than one common name (e.g., chamise, greasewood as long as Adenostoma fasciculatum). b) One common name may refer to more than one taxon (e.g., ”hemlock” as long as both Tsuga in addition to as long as Conium maculatum). 3) Common names tell nothing about rank; scientific names do. 4) Many, if not most, organisms have no common name in any language. What is rank Hierarchical classification in which a higher rank is inclusive of all lower ranks. What is position Placement as a member of a taxon of the next higher rank E.g., Aster & Rosa of same rank (genus) but different positions (Asteraceae & Rosaceae)

What are the ranks Kingdom (various) Plantae Phylum [Division] -phyta Magnoliophyta Subphylum [Subdivision] -phytina Magnoliophytina Class -opsida Magnoliopsida Subclass -idae Asteridae Superorder -anae, [-iflorae] Asteranae Order -ales Asterales Suborder -ineae Asterineae Family -aceae Asteraceae Subfamily -oideae Asteroideae Tribe -eae Heliantheae Subtribe -inae Helianthinae Genus (various) Helianthus Subgenus (various) Helianthus Section (various) Helianthus Species (various) Helianthus annuus Subspecies (various) Helianthus annuus ssp. annuus Variety (various) Helianthus annuus var. annuus Major Rank Endings: Order -ales Asterales Family -aceae Asteraceae Subfamily -oideae Asteroideae Tribe -eae Heliantheae Subtribe -inae Helianthinae Genus (various) Helianthus Subgenus (various) Helianthus Section (various) Helianthus Species (various) Helianthus annuus Subspecies (various) Helianthus annuus ssp. annuus Variety (various) Helianthus annuus var. annuus What is the rank of: Conostylidoideae subfamily Zygophyllaceae family Haemodoreae tribe Hamamelidae subclass Linnaea borealis var. longiflora variety Liliopsida class Magnoliophyta phylum Rosales order Tribonanthes genus Tribonanthes variegata species Phlebocarya ciliata subsp. pilosissima subspecies

Alternate Family/Subfamily Names Apiaceae = Umbelliferae Arecaceae = Palmae Asteraceae = Compositae Brassicaceae = Cruciferae Fabaceae = Leguminosae Faboideae = Papilionoideae Clusiaceae = Guttiferae Lamiaceae = Labiatae Poaceae = Gramineae What is a ternary name subspecies or variety name (both are infraspecific names) E.g., Toxicodendron radicans subsp. diversilobum (diversilobum = subspecific epithet) Brickellia arguta var. odontolepis (odontolepis = varietal epithet) What is of higher rank Authorship the name of the person who first validly published the name

E.g., Rosaceae Jussieu Conostylideae Lindley Mohavea A. Gray Mohavea confertiflora (A. DC.) A. Heller Monardella linoides A. Gray ssp. erecta (Abrams) Elvin & A.C. S in addition to ers AUTHOR NAMES OFTEN ABBREVIATED: Haemodoraceae R. Br. ( as long as Robert Brown) Liquidambar styraciflua L. ( as long as C. Linnaeus) CHECK http://www.ipni.org (st in addition to ardized) How to learn scientific names: 1) Syllabize in addition to accent. 2) Use mnemonic devices. 3) Learn the etymology (meaning). 4) Practice in addition to review: oral in addition to written recitation. Herbarium specimen (usu.) permanently associated with a name. Holotype – primary specimen upon which a name is based, designated at the time of publication. Isotype – duplicate of the holotype, collected at the same time by the same person from the same place. Lectotype – selected from the original material to serve as the type when holotype not available. Neotype – specimen derived from a non-original collection that is selected to serve as the type. What is a nomenclature type

Types exist as long as all ranks up to family A specimen described by Linnaeus is the type as long as Borago officinalis L. Borago officinalis L. is the type as long as the genus Borago L. The genus Borago L. is the type as long as the family Boraginaceae Jussieu Taxa at which ranks have types What is a priority of publication When in addition to with what publication begin Nomina familiarum conserv in addition to a Nomina generica conserv in addition to a et rejicienda Nomina species conserv in addition to a Species Plantarum by Linnaeus in 1753 (with exceptions) Name published first is the legitimate one Adverse consequences How to correct Two reasons as long as name change 1) Name contrary to the rules (illegitimate). 2) Additional research has changed definition in addition to delimitation of a taxon.

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NEW Research: Phylogenetic studies may demonstrate at taxon to be non-monophyletic E.g., Lotus s.l. is not monophyletic Four major ways that names are changed United Divided Changed in rank Changed in Position

Names may be united: E.g., Krynitzkia in addition to Cryptantha (Boraginaceae) have been united into one genus, Cryptantha Name changes: Solution 1: Unite as a monophyletic group: Lotus s.l. Name may be divided: E.g., Rhus (Anacardiaceae) split into Malosma, Rhus, in addition to Toxicodendron Name changes:

aff. (affine) means “related to” auct. non (auctorum non) means “not of these authors,” referring to a “misapplied” name, such that the type specimen of the name does not fall within the circumscription of the taxon being referred to by that name cf. (confer) means “compare to” comb. nov. (combinatio nova) means a new nomenclatural combination emend. (emendatio) means a correction or amendment et is Latin as long as “ in addition to ” ex is Latin as long as “from,” meaning validly published by gen. nov. (genus novum) means a new genus in is Latin as long as “in,” meaning in the publication of ined. (ineditus) means not validly published nom. cons. (nomen conserv in addition to um) means a conserved name nom. nov. (nomen novum) means a new name, e.g., proposed as a substitute as long as an older name (e.g., an illegitimate homonym, in which case the older name serves as the type as long as the new one) nom. nud. (nomen nudum) means published without a description or diagnosis, making the name invalid non is Latin as long as “not” n. v. (non visus) is Latin as long as “not seen,” typically meaning that authors did not see a specimen, such as a type. orth. cons. (orthographia conserv in addition to a) means a conserved spelling s.l. (sensu lato) means “in the broad sense” s.s. or s.str. (sensu stricto) means “in the narrow sense” sp. nov. (species nova) means a new species stat. nov. (status novus) means a change in rank, e.g., elevating a varietal name to specific status typ. cons. (typus conserv in addition to us) means a conserved type specimen typ. des. (typus designatus) means the designation of a type specimen vide (video) means to cite a reference X indicates a hybrid ! (symbol as long as vidi, “I have seen it”) can mean a) a confirmation of a name, as on an annotation label agreeing with the name on the original herbarium label; or b) indication that a specimen (usually a type) has been seen by the author in a publication = a heterotypic synonym, based on a different type = a homotypic synonym, based on the same type Independence of Botanical Nomenclature Same names can exist in botanical in addition to zoological codes. Morus = mulberry in addition to a bird, the gannet Ficus = figs in addition to of a group of gastropods. Both codes can treat same organisms, e.g., some “Protista”. Retroactivity of the ICN Ficus Morus

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