Politics in addition to Power “Man is by nature a political animal.” – Aristotle “Politics

Politics in addition to Power

Politics in addition to Power “Man is by nature a political animal.” – Aristotle “Politics

Boyle, John, Executive Producer and Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Politics in addition to Power “Man is by nature a political animal.” – Aristotle “Politics, n. Strife of interests masquerading as a contest of principles.” – Ambrose Bierce, American journalist “Politics is the art of preventing people from taking part in affairs which properly concern them.” – Paul Valery, French writer in addition to philosopher “The mistake a lot of politicians make is in as long as getting they’ve been appointed in addition to thinking they’ve been anointed.” – Claude D. Pepper, US Senator “My choice early in life was either to be a piano-player in a whorehouse or a politician. And to tell the truth, there’s hardly any difference.” – Harry S. Truman, US President (1945-52) “Politics is the skilled use of blunt objects.” – Lester B. Pearson, Canadian PM (1963-68) “Politics is war without bloodshed while war is politics with bloodshed.” – Mao Zedong, Chairman of People’s Republic of China “Politics is the art of the possible.” – Otto Von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany

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The American public’s reactions to the behaviour of their leaders in the debt/budget battle in Washington, July-Aug 2011, Pew Research poll: http://pewresearch.org/pubs/2078/debt-ceiling-limits-budget-deficit-tea-party-republicans-obama-democrats-republicans-ridiculous Some common definitions of politics: Politics is the exercise of power Politics is the public allocation of values Politics is the resolution of conflict Politics is the competition among individuals, groups, or states pursuing their interests Danziger, James N. Underst in addition to ing the Political World. NY: Addison-Wesley, 1991 Politics is often understood as: the art in addition to science of GOVERNMENT, as affairs of STATE But: The state is rooted in society. The state maintains a particular social order. Politics outside the state is important. Interactions between state in addition to society are at the core of politics. So, to underst in addition to politics, it has to be examined as part of the entire fabric of SOCIAL RELATIONS – cooperation in addition to conflicts between individuals, groups, classes

Cooperation in addition to conflict are two basic modes of politics POLITICS AS COOPERATION, OR INTEGRATION – as the process of rule based on order in addition to justice. Politics is driven by the considerations of the common good. More natural as long as the thinking of those who support the existing social order (status quo) POLITICS AS CONFLICT – as struggle as long as power. Politics is driven by selfish interests of individuals, groups, businesses, states. More natural as long as the thinking of those who would like to change the status quo in their favour.

At any given moment, in any political process or event, one can discover elements of both cooperation in addition to conflict which interact in various ways Political analysis seeks to make sense of the logics of these interactions Maurice Duverger: “The state – in addition to in a more general way, organized power in any society – is always in addition to at all times both the instrument by which certain groups dominate others, an instrument used in the interest of the rulers in addition to to the disadvantage of the ruled, – in addition to also a means of ensuring a particular social order, of achieving some integration of the individual in addition to the collectivity as long as the general good The two elements always co-exist, though the importance of each varies with the period, the circumstances, in addition to the country concerned “The relations between conflict in addition to integration are, moreover, complex. Every attack on the existing social order implies the image of a superior, more authentic order. Every conflict implies a dream of integration in addition to represents an ef as long as t to bring it into being

Many thinkers maintain that conflict in addition to integration are not two opposed faces but one in addition to the same overall process in which conflict naturally produces integration, in addition to divisions, by their development, tend naturally toward their own suppression leading to the coming of the city of harmony.” The Idea of Politics, L.: Methuen, 1966, p.viii THE LEAST CONTROVERSIAL WORKING DEFINITION OF POLITICS A HUMAN ACTIVITY focused on: 1/ the FORMULATION in addition to EXECUTION of: DECISIONS, which are BINDING on members of: A SOCIAL WHOLE (family, community, society, the world) – in addition to : 2/ the RELATIONS which are as long as med between individuals, groups, states IN THE PROCESS of as long as mulation in addition to execution of those decisions. See Larry Johnston’s Politics, Broadview Press, 1998, p. 16 The word politics comes from ancient Greece. Its root is the word polis, which began to be used about 2,800 years ago to denote a self-governing city (city-state) POLIS – city-state POLITES – citizen POLITIKOS – politician POLITIKE – politics as the art of citizenship in addition to government POLITEIA – constitution, rules of politics POLITEUMA – political community, all those residents who have full political rights

Four categories of residents of the ancient Greek polis 1. Citizens with full legal in addition to political rights Adult free men born legitimately of citizen parents. They had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, in addition to the obligation to serve when at war. 2. Citizens with legal rights but no political rights: Women in addition to underage children, whose political rights in addition to interests were represented by their adult male relatives 3. Foreigners (citizens of other city-states): Full legal rights, but no political rights. Could not vote, could not be elected to office, could not bear arms in addition to could not serve in war. Subject to taxation. 4. Slaves Property of their owners, any privileges depend on the owner’s will The Acropolis, Athens State Market Society

There is a city called Polis in the northern part of the Isl in addition to of Cyprus: http://www.polis-municipality-cyprus.com/ Power The fuel of politics. The ability to make, or to influence the making of, those binding decisions which are the essence of politics Struggle as long as power Distribution of power: how fair how equal how effective Balance of power Great power, superpower, hyperpower A powerful leader TYPES OF POWER POLITICAL POWER control of, or influence on, the state, ability to make, or influence, political decisions ECONOMIC POWER control of economic assets MILITARY POWER ability to wage war – or to compel others through intimidation or deterrence These as long as ms of power interact in many ways. For example

An important distinction: “Power over ” in addition to “power to ” “Power to” conveys the idea of one’s ability to realize one’s goals without coercing others Individually, by exercising one’s freedom Or collectively, by joining with others in a free in addition to voluntary way Associated with visions of a good society, based on the ideals of freedom, equality, justice, solidarity, democracy G in addition to hi’s first protest, South Africa, 1906: http://www.youtube.com/watchv=SNmJqRV7LOA Barack Obama, 2009: http://www.youtube.com/watchv=yCFhpYMhaqY&feature=channel In real life, “power over” is the prevalent kind of power Its main characteristics: 1. AN INTERACTIVE PROCESS (you have to have someone to have power over) 2. POTENTIAL or ACTIVE 3. A PURPOSEFUL ACTIVITY 4. PROMOTIVE (Do it!) or PREVENTIVE (Don’t do it!) 5. BALANCED or UNBALANCED (“Absolute power corrupts absolutely” – Lord Acton). Democracy associated with balanced power

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INFLUENCE – use of power (or power exertion) with an uncertain outcome CONTROL – use of power with a more or less certain outcome DOMINATION – structured, stable use of power 5 principal as long as ms of power (see OCDP, “power”) FORCE – ability to detain in addition to harm people in addition to damage or confiscate their property to compel them to obey your orders PERSUASION – ability to convince people to do what they otherwise would not have done by invoking their own interests in addition to common sense AUTHORITY – legitimate (just in addition to lawful) power to control in addition to direct people’s activities COERCION – controlling people by means of threatening use of as long as ce MANIPULATION – controlling people without threats, by persuading them about the legitimacy of the existing power relationships, or by offering them benefits LEGITIMATE power TYPES OF LEGITIMACY (Max Weber, Politics as a Vocation) TRADITIONAL – based on tradition, established beliefs or values (example: rule of dynasties, power of the church) LEGAL-RATIONAL – based on as long as mal arrangements (rules, laws, constitutions). The main type practiced in contemporary politics CHARISMATIC– based on the extraordinary personal qualities of a leader, or on the influence of an idea or a cause from ancient Greek word “charisma”, meaning “gift”

In as long as mation as a power resource “Knowledge is power” – Francis Bacon From the printing press to the Internet The In as long as mation Revolution The In as long as mation Age The new role of in as long as mation in our lives – in our economy, social relations, politics – as a result of rapid development of ICT (in as long as mation in addition to communication technologies) since the 1980s Access to in as long as mation Management of in as long as mation Control of in as long as mation Controlling people through their minds Values, ideas, the daily in as long as mation flow Religion, education, propag in addition to a, mass media The power of discourse The in as long as mation battleground: how controllable are we Can you fool all the people all the time SO, WHERE DOES POWER COME FROM, ULTIMATELY Power is produced by social cooperation. Ultimately, it is a collective product. We create power by acting together. The problem is that this product is usually appropriated by the few in addition to used at the expense of, or downright against, the many.

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