PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 3 Diagnosis in addition to AssessmentAbnorm

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PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 3 Diagnosis in addition to AssessmentAbnorm

McLaughlin, Sean, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 3 Diagnosis in addition to AssessmentAbnormal Psychology, Thirteenth Edition by Ann M. Kring,Sheri L. Johnson, Gerald C. Davison,& John M. Neale © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Chapter OutlineChapter 3: Diagnosis in addition to Assessment I. Cornerstones of Diagnosis in addition to Assessment II. Classification in addition to Diagnosis III. Psychological Assessment IV. Neurobiological Assessment V. Cultural in addition to Ethnic Diversity in addition to Assessment© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Diagnosis in addition to AssessmentDiagnosis The classification of disorders by symptoms in addition to signs. Advantages of diagnosis:Facilitates communication among professionalsAdvances the search as long as causes in addition to treatmentsCornerstone of clinical care© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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ReliabilityConsistency of measurementInterraterObserver agreement Test-retestSimilarity of scores across repeated test administrations or observationsAlternate FormsSimilarity of scores on tests that are similar but not identicalInternal ConsistencyExtent to which test items are related to one another© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.ValidityHow well does a test measure what it is supposed to measureContent validityExtent to which a measure adequately samples the domain of interest, e.g., all of the symptoms of a disorderCriterion validityExtent to which a measure is associated with another measure (the criterion)Concurrent Two measures administered at the same point in timePredictiveAbility of the measure to predict another variable measured at some future point in time© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.ValidityConstruct validity (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955)A construct is an abstract concept or inferred attributeInvolves correlating multiple indirect measures of the attributee.g., self-report of anxiety correlated with increased HR, shallow breathing, racing thoughtsImportant as long as validating our theoretical underst in addition to ing of psychopathologyMethod as long as evaluating diagnostic categories© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Classification in addition to Diagnosis Diagnostic in addition to Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by American Psychiatric AssociationFirst edition published in 1952Previous edition: DSM-IV-TR (fourth edition, revised)Published in 1994, text revised in 2000Many texts in addition to research articles will continue to use DSM-IV terminology as long as a period of timeCurrent edition: DSM-5Published summer of 2013© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Figure 3.3: Timeline as long as DSM-5© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Multiaxial Classification System in DSM-IV-TR in addition to DSM-5© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 3.5: Categorical Versus Dimensional Systems of DiagnosisCategoricalPresence/absence of a disorderEither you are anxious or you are not anxiousDimensionalRank on a continuous quantitative dimensionDegree to which a symptom is presentHow anxious are you on a scale of 1 to 10© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Changes in DSM-5Changes in multiaxial systemFive axes in DSM-IV-TR changed to two axes in DSM-5Clinical SyndromesPsychosocial in addition to Environmental ProblemsChanges in organization of diagnosesDSM-IV-TR clusters diagnoses on similarity of symptomsDSM-5 diagnoses are reorganized to reflect new knowledge of comorbidity in addition to shared etiologyOCD moved from anxiety cluster to new cluster that also includes hoarding in addition to body dysmorphic disorder© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Table 3.1: Descriptions of Mania in DSM-II vs. DSM-5© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Chapters in DSM-IV-TR in addition to DSM-5© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Changes in DSM-5Personality Disorder DiagnosesRemain unchanged from DSM-IVProposed revisions included in Section IIIFor further studyNew DiagnosesDisruptive mood dysregulation, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, etc.Renaming of DiagnosesMental retardation to intellectual disabilityDysthymia to persistent depressive disorderCombining DiagnosesSubstance use disorder replaces substance abuse in addition to substance dependence, etc.Clearer Criteria© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Ethnic in addition to Cultural ConsiderationsMental illness universalCulture can influence:Risk factorsTypes of symptoms experiencedWillingness to seek helpAvailability of treatments© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cultural Concepts of DistressCultural Formulation9 Concepts of DistressReplaces 25 separate diagnosesE.g., Amok, Drat, Koru, Taijin kyofusho, Hikikomori, etc. Focus on influence of culture on disorder presentation© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Table 3.2: Twelve- Month Prevalence Rates of the Most Common Diagnoses by Country© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Criticisms of the DSMToo many diagnosesShould relatively common reactions be pathologizedComorbidityPresence of a second diagnosis45% of people diagnosed with one disorder will meet criteria as long as a second disorderReliability in everyday practice© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Table 3.3 Number of Diagnostic Categories per Edition of DSM© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Figure 3.6: Interrater ReliabilityExtent to which clinicians agree on the diagnosis © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Construct Validity of Diagnostic CategoriesConstruct validity of highest concernDiagnoses are constructsFor most disorders, no lab test available to diagnose with certaintyStrong construct validity predicts wide range of characteristicsPossible etiological causes (past)Clinical characteristics (current)Predict treatment response (future)© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Figure 3.1: Construct Validity of Diagnostic Categories© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Criticisms of Classification Stigma against mental illness.Treated differently by othersDifficulty finding a jobCategories do not capture the uniqueness of a person.The disorder does not define the person. She is an individual with schizophrenia, not a “schizophrenic” Classification may emphasize trivial similaritiesRelevant in as long as mation may be overlooked. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Table 3.5: Rates of Marital Distress in addition to Missed Work Days Among People with Mental Illness in the Past Year© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Psychological AssessmentTechniques employed to:Describe client’s problemDetermine causes of problemArrive at a diagnosisDevelop a treatment strategyMonitor treatment progressConducting valid researchIdeal assessment involves multiple measures in addition to methodsInterviews, personality inventories, intelligence tests, etc. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Clinical InterviewsIn as long as mal/less structured interviewsInterviewer attends to how questions are answeredIs response accompanied by appropriate emotionDoes client fail to answer questionGood rapport essential to earn trustEmpathy in addition to accepting attitude necessaryReliability lower than as long as structured interviewsStructured interviewsAll interviewers ask the same questions in a predetermined orderStructured Clinical Interview as long as Axis I of DSM (SCID)Good interrater reliability as long as most diagnostic categories© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Figure 3.7: Sample Item from SCID© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Assessment of StressStressSubjective experience of distress in response to perceived environmental problemsBed as long as d College Life Events in addition to Difficulties Schedule (LEDS)Semi-structured interviewEvaluates stressors within the context of each individual’s circumstancesSelf-Report Stress ChecklistsFaster way to assess stressTest-retest reliability low © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Psychological TestsPersonality TestsSelf-reported Personality InventoriesMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Yields profile of psychological functioningSpecific subscales to detect lying in addition to faking “good” or “bad”Projective TestsRorshach Inkblot Test in addition to Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Projective hypothesisResponses to ambiguous stimuli reflect unconscious processes© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Figure 3.10: Hypothetical MMPI-2 Profile© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

COPYRIGHT Copyright 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any as long as m or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any in as long as mation storage in addition to retrieval system, without written permission of the copyright owner.© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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