Press Operations & Types of DiesPress WorkingUse of mechanical in addition to hydraulic pre
Lee, Sandy, Executive Producer, Special Projects has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Press Operations & Types of DiesPress WorkingUse of mechanical in addition to hydraulic presses as long as as long as ging in addition to extrusion has been mentioned earlier. Knuckle type mechanical presses are used widely as long as sheet metal work. These presses are usually of vertical configuration. These presses are provided with a heavy flywheel driven by an electric motor. A ram moves up in addition to down the guide ways provided in the frame of the press, when the ram is connected to the flywheel through a connecting rod in addition to a crank mechanism. The clutch as long as transferring the motion from the flywheel to the ram is operated by a foot operated treadle. The arrangement is somewhat similar to the mechanism of a reciprocating engine. Such presses are very useful as long as providing short powerful strokes.These presses are available in two configurations:(i) Open frame type, in addition to (ii) Closed frame type. Open frame type presses are less robust as compared to closed frame type, but provide greater access as long as loading material as they are open in front as well as sides. Due to their appearance, they are also referred to as C-frame or gap presses as well. Closed frame type presses are used as long as heavier work. The capacity of the press is indicated by the as long as ce (or tonnage), the press is capable of exerting.
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OPERATIONS PERFORMED WITH PRESSESApart from punching in addition to blanking, several other useful operations are per as long as med with the help of mechanical presses: Some of these are listed below:(i) Bending,(ii) Deep drawing,(iii) Coining, in addition to (iv) Embossing.These operations are described briefly.BENDINGBending means de as long as ming a flat sheet along a straight line to as long as m the required angle. Various sections like angles, channels etc., are as long as med by bending, which may then be used as long as fabrication of steel structures.Three common methods of bending are illustrated in Fig.DEEP DRAWINGIn deep drawing process, we start with a flat metal plate or sheet in addition to convert it into cup shape by pressing the sheet in the center with a circular punch fitting into a cup shaped die. In household kitchen, we use many vessels like deep saucepans (or BHAGONA), which are made by deep drawing process. If the depth of cup is more than half its diameter, the process is termed as deep drawing in addition to with a lesser depth to diameter ratio, it is called shallow drawing. Parts of various geometries in addition to shape are made by drawing process. The deep drawing process is illustrated in Fig.
COINING AND EMBOSSINGBoth coining in addition to embossing operations are done cold in addition to mechanical presses with punch in addition to die are used as long as these operations. In embossing, impressions are made on sheet metal in such a manner that the thickness of the sheet remains uni as long as m all over even after embossing has been done. It means that if one side of the sheet is raised to as long as m a design, there is a corresponding depression on the other side of the sheet. Basically it is a pressing operation where not much as long as ce is needed. The sheet is spread on the bottom die in addition to the stroke of the punch is so adjusted that, when it moves down to its lowest position, it leaves a uni as long as m clearance between the impressions carved in the punch in addition to the die which is equal to the thickness of the sheet being embossed. The design is transferred on to the sheet by bending the sheet up or down without altering its thickness any where. Many decoration pieces with religious motifs are made in this way.NOTCHINGA shearing operation that removes a section from the outer edge of the metal strip or part.In coining process, a blank of metal which is softened by annealing process is placed between two dies containing an impression. The blank is restricted on its circumference in such a manner, that upon the two dies closing upon the blank, the material cannot flow laterally i.e., sideways. The material is only free to flow upwards (as a result of which it fills up the depressions in the upper die) in addition to downwards(when it fills up depressions in the bottom die). The result of the coining operation is that the design engraved on the top in addition to bottom dies gets imprinted on the corresponding faces of the blank in relief (i.e., raised material) without the size of the blank-circumference changing. Coins used as money in daily usage are manufactured in this manner. Here as long as ces required are much higher, enough to cause plastic-flow of material. The embossing in addition to coining processes are illustrated in Fig.
Lee, Sandy Executive Producer, Special Projects
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