Primate Studies 2 Taxonomy Development There are approximately 190 sepcies of no
Khoury, Najeeb, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Primate Studies 2 Taxonomy Development There are approximately 190 sepcies of non-human primates. prosimians monkeys apes Primate Development in addition to Taxonomy Originswhere did primates come from A proliferation of mammalian as long as ms from the end of the Cretaceous period (ca. 65 Mya) opened new econiches The major evolutionary trends that distinguish primates in addition to their generalized mammalian as long as m came as a result of adaptation to arboreal living.
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Trees: The Primate Adaptive Niche Adaptive niche as long as primates was the trees Provided many challenges in addition to opportunities Depth perception in addition to binocular vision crucial Climbing using prehensile h in addition to s in addition to feet instead of claws Varied diet led to omnivorous adaptation in addition to generalized dentition Longer life span, increased intelligence in addition to more elaborate social system needed to cope Other placental mammals tended to adapt to grassl in addition to s, marine or other environments Arboreal vs. visual predation vs. mixed diet Matt Cartmill criticized the arboreal hypothesis He proposes a visual predation hypothesis First adaptation was to the lower tier of the as long as est canopy in addition to the brush, as “stealthy” eaters of insects who quickly pounce from branch onto insect Needed foward-facing eyes in addition to partially grasping h in addition to s to do so Tarsier Tarsier Visual predation in addition to the arboreal hypothesis are not mutually exclusive explanations The visual predation traits developed as the primates moved to the trees. Whatever the case, we know they eventually moved to the trees. Weakness Prosimians, considered to be closer to the ancestral as long as m of all primates, exhibit lower reliance on visual in as long as mation as long as locomotion in addition to predation
Prosimians emphasize olfactory in addition to auditory cues in the pursuit of prey. Robert Sussman proposed the Mixed Diet Hypothesis Increased exploitation of angiosperms (flowering plants) selected as long as modern primate characteristics. Enhanced visual acuity, color vision, in addition to characteristics amenable to exploiting terminal branch resources all allowed as long as efficient acquisition of resources. The emergence of flowering plants in the Paleocene roughly coincides with the emergence of the earliest primate ancestors. Mixed Diet Hypothesis Tupaiidae Tree shrews Indriidae Primate Classification Highest level: order Primates Next level down: Prosimii (lemurs, lorises, in addition to usually the tarsiers) Anthropodiea (monkeys, apes in addition to humans). At successively lower levels (infraorder, superfamily, family, genus, in addition to species), see chart Linnean taxonomic system
Primate taxonomy based on morphology: Criticisms Tarsiers have both prosimian in addition to anthropoid traits in addition to are biochemically closer to anthropoids. Hominoids have traditionally included four species in one family (the Pogidae-gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, in addition to orangutans), as separate from humans (Hominidae) but seem actually to have both Asian in addition to African branches. DNA studies have complicated it further, indicating the closeness of humans in addition to chimpanzees, with gorillas further away. Some have even suggested that chimps be labelled Homo troglodytes. The point is that the taxonomic system is in flux as new data are utilized. Most experts still use the traditional system. Prosimians The most primitive of the true primates: lemurs in addition to lorises more reliance on olfaction (smell), with moist, fleshy pad (rhinarium) at the end of the nose in addition to a long snout mark territories with scent (other primates don’t) somewhat more laterally placed eyes differences in reproductive physiology, shorter gestation in addition to maturation the dental comb, as long as med by as long as ward-projecting lower incisors in addition to canines, used in grooming in addition to feeding Dental comb Rhinarium Lemurs Found only on the Isl in addition to of Madagascar in addition to adjacent isl in addition to off east Africa, they are extremely diversified into a range of niches-22 surviving species Size range from the mouse lemur with head in addition to trunk length of only five inches to the indri a bit over two feet long. Larger lemurs are diurnal in addition to eat a variety of leaves, fruits, buds, bark in addition to shoots; smaller are nocturnal in addition to insectivorous Considerable variation in behavior. Some are arboreal while others are terrestrial. Socially several species live in groups of 10-20 animals. Some like the indri live in monogamous family units. Some nocturnal as long as ms are solitary.
Lorises Similar in appearance to lemurs, but survived in continental areas of India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, in addition to Africa. Five species, largely nocturnal. Galagos are included as well, with 6-9 additional species. They are slow, cautious, quadrupedal climbers who can suspend themselves on hind limbs leaving h in addition to s as long as feeding. Some are entirely insect eaters while others supplement the diet with leaves, fruits, in addition to slugs. Food as long as aging is often solitary. Lemurs in addition to lorises are at the same adaptive level. Good grasping in addition to climbing abilities in addition to well-developed visual ability, though stereoscopic ability not as developed as it is in anthropoids. Most have a claw-grooming claw on second toe. Life span is about 14 years as long as loris in addition to 19 years or lemurs. Tarsiers Three species restrcted to isl in addition to areas in SE Asia. They live in a wide range of habitats. They are nocturnal insectivores, in addition to leap onto prey from branches in addition to shrubs. They as long as m pair bonds, with the social unit being the mated pair in addition to offspring. Unlike loris in addition to lemurs, they have no rhinarium in addition to they have a eye sockets enclosed by bone t back in addition to sides. This is more like an anthropoid. Eyes are enormous, compared to the rest of the body. They have taxonomically mixed traits. Anthropoids The traits that distinguish anthropoids from prosimians include: generally larger body size larger brain (in absolute terms as well as relative to body weight) more rounded skull complete rotation of eyes to front of face with full binocular vision bony plate at back of eye orbit no rhinarium (less reliance on smell) increased parental care increased gestation in addition to maturation periods more mutual grooming
Monkeys The monkeys represent 70% (about 130 species) of all primates in addition to are the most varied. New species are still being discovered in addition to there are debates about taxonomy. Two main groups, New in addition to Old World monkeys, have several million years of distinct evolutionary history. They had a strikingly parallel evolution with similar selective pressures in tropical arboreal environments Some say they evolved independently while others claim a common ancestor sometime be as long as e 50 million years ago. New World Monkey Old World Monkey New World Monkeys A wide range of size, diet in addition to ecological adaptation. Marmosets in addition to tamarins weigh about 12 ounces at the small end, in addition to howlers weigh up to 20 or so pounds. Almost exclusively arboreal, some never coming to the ground All but one species in diurnal, living in most as long as ested areas of southern Mexico into Central in addition to South America. Major characteristic is the shape of the nose. New World have broad, widely flaring noses with outward-facing nostrilssometimes called platyrrhine or flat-nosed Marmoset Tamarin Two families: Callitrichidae in addition to Cebidae Callitrichidae are the most primitive monkeys: marmosets in addition to tamarins as examples with claws instead of nails giving birth to twins instead of one offspring usually insectivorous quadrupedal locomotion with claws used in tree climbing, but with leaping too males heavily involved in infant care (the only primates to do so) family groups of mated pair in addition to offspring. Cebids-at least 30 species ranging from foot-long squirrel monkey to the howler (2 ft.). diet varies, with most eating fruit in addition to leaves with some insects most are quadrupedal, but some can brachiate a bit powerful prehensile tails used as long as moving in addition to as long as suspending while eating socially live in small mixed-sex groups, but some live as monogamous pairs with offspring
Old World Monkeys Much more variety in morphology in addition to behavior than New World monkeys They have downward facing noses in addition to are called catarrhine Only one recognized family: Cercopithecidae Two subfamilies: cercopithecines in addition to colobines Old World Monkey Traits The most widely distributed of non-human primates, ranging from tropical as long as ests to semi-arid deserts in addition to seasonal snow-covered areas in northern Japan. Most are quadrupedal in addition to primarily arboreal, but some (like baboons) are well adapted to the ground Most hold their upper bodies erect as long as long periods of time while feeding, sleeping, in addition to grooming-associated with it is hard skin on the buttocks called ischial callosities-serve as sitting pads Most have a great deal of manual dexterity Most have tails that are used in both balance in addition to communication. Ischial callosities (gelada baboons) Old World Monkey Traits Locomoton varies from arboreal to terrestrial quadrupedalism to semibrachiation to acrobatic leaping. Sexual dimorphism is typical of l in addition to species like baboons, with male weight (80 lbs.) often twice that of females Females often exhibit pronounced cyclical changes of the external genitalia with swelling in addition to redness during estrus, a hormonally initiated period of sexual receptivity correlated with ovulation. Several types of social groups: Colobines tend to live in small gropups with only one or two adult males, whereas cercopithecines live in large groups with several adults of both sexes in addition to offspring of all ages. Female hamadryas baboon in estrus (note the sexual skin)
Hominoids Superfamily Hominoidea includes placed in the family Hylobatidae: gibbons in addition to siamangs (the “lesser” apes) Pongidae: orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees in addition to bonobos (the great apes Hominidae: humans Locations of Ape Habitats
Apes in addition to humans differ from monkeys in many ways including: generally larger body size, except in gibbons in addition to siamangs absence of tail shortened trunk (lumbar area relatively shorter in addition to more stable) differences in position in addition to musculature of shoulder joint (adapted as long as suspensory locomotion) more complex behavior more complex brain in addition to cognitive abilities lengthened period of infant development in addition to dependency Hominoid Traits Gibbons in addition to Siamangs Eight gibbon species are found in tropical areas of SE Asia. Small, weighing 13 pounds as long as gibbon in addition to 25 as long as saimang. Extremely good brachiators due to very long arms, permanently curved fingers in addition to powerful shoulders. Mostly a fuit diet, supplemented by leaves, insects. Social unit is monogamous pair in addition to offspring. Both males in addition to females are highly territorial. Gibbon Siamang Orangutans Represented by two subspecies in heavily as long as ested areas of Indonesian isl in addition to s of Borneo in addition to Sumatra. They face extinction due to poaching in addition to diminution of their habitat. The are slow, cautious climbers who use all four limbs as long as locomotion. Almost completely arboreal, but do travel quadrupedally on ground as long as short distances. Very large animal that may weigh 200 lbs. as long as males, 100 as long as females. They are frugivorous, but supplement with leaves, insects in addition to some meat.
Chimpanzees & Bonobos Our closest relatives Why are they so different Genetics Karyotyping of apes has not demonstrated the evolutionary sequence Suggests that humans in addition to chimps share a more recent ancestry after splitting from gorillas. Despite 99% similarity at the level of DNA sequence between humans in addition to our nearest relative, chimpanzees, the locations of DNA swapping between chromosomes, known as recombination hotspots, are nearly entirely different. More controlled study may clarify. HAS=Human, PPA=Chimpanzee PPY=orangutan GGO=gorilla Human
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