Primate Studies So what The Comparative Approach Anatomy Evolutionary Trends Ta
Kennedy, Randall, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Primate Studies So what The Comparative Approach Anatomy Evolutionary Trends Taxonomy Primate Studies Their apparent similarity to us physically: little “people.” What fascinates us about non-human primates Their apparent similarity to us behaviorally. Our studies of non-human primates have changed the ways we see ourselves. Especially Tool using in addition to tool making behavior Apes & language behavior Koko signing help!
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Many of these insights are owed to a number of primatologists. Jane Goodall (chimpanzees) Diane Fossey (mountain gorillas) Birute Galdikas (orangutans) F. B. de Waal ( field in addition to zoo study of bonobos) Susan Savage-Rumbaugh (chimpanzee Language) better underst in addition to the nature of the human body in addition to mind. to see what behavioral characteristics correlate with intelligence. Where does primatology fit into anthropology A branch of physical (biological) anthropology but important in psychology, social psychology, zoology. Studies of primates can help us: explaining what it is to be human, a profoundly difficult task. The big question as far as anthropology is concerned is
Primatology gives us one of the few ways to have a biological comparative perspective. To gain an underst in addition to ing of any organism, it is necessary to compare its anatomy in addition to behavior with other closely related as long as ms. Helps us to describe in addition to explain significance of physiological in addition to behavioral systems as adaptive responses to various selective pressures as our species evolved. For humans this comparative perspective works best with non-human primates. The Comparative Approach There are approximately 190 sepcies of non-human primates. prosimians monkeys apes Physical Characteristics of primates Prosimians evolved be as long as e anthropoids. Don’t confuse this as some do with an idea that prosimians “progressed” into anthropoids. There is no implied “superiority” of one as long as m over another. They simply adapted to have characteristics that allowed them to live in particular habitats. All the groups we’ll talk about are physiologically in addition to behaviorally successful in evolutionary terms. Nor should you think of any primate group as the final evolutionary stage of a primate lineage. They are continually evolving. The only “final stages” are those that are extinct!
All primates have remained quite generalized. Retained traits that other mammal species have lost over time. Some responded to particular selective pressures in addition to became specialized. Example Horse in addition to cattle hooves as reduction of the number of digits as an example whereas primates keep the five digit pattern allowing more types of locomotion in addition to ability to manipulate objects This diagram shows the evolution of horse hind feet. a. shows Hyracotherium, from 55 million years ago. b. shows Miohippus, from 35 million years ago c. shows Merychippus, from 17 million years ago d. shows Equus, the modern horse, with its single hoof. Evolution of Primate digits vs. Horse hooves Except as long as some odd characters
Primates can’t be easily defined by a few traits. We can see evolutionary trends instead. Limbs in addition to locomotion Dentition Senses in addition to the brain Development Origins from arboreal life Trends A tendency toward erect posture (primarily upper body)-sitting, st in addition to ing, leaping, some bipedalism Flexible, generalized limb structure permitting most to use a number of locomotion behaviors Retention of some bones (clavicle) in addition to certain abilities ( as long as earm rotation) lost in specialized mammals Hip in addition to shoulder morphology allowing wide range of movement such as knuckle walking, brachiation, bipedialism Limbs in addition to locomotion Locomotion as long as ms Brachiation Knuckle walking Laetoli, Tanzania, c. 3.5 – 3.8 million years ago Bipedalism
H in addition to s & Feet (& tail) Nail instead of claws (except some New World monkeys) Tactile pads with nerves at ends of fingers to enhance touch sense H in addition to s in addition to feet are prehensile (grasping) Five digits on h in addition to s an feet, but some show diminished thumb in addition to second finger Partially opposable thumb in addition to most have fully divergent , partly opposable big toe Teeth Lack of dietary specialization Omnivorous Carnivorous Frugivorous The dental as long as mula is the quantity of each type of tooth (incisor, canine, premolar, in addition to molar) in each quadrant of the mouth, counting from the front. The human dental as long as mula is 22.214.171.124. The Old World monkeys in addition to apes also share this dental as long as mula. Diet in addition to teethcutting, tearing, grinding Primates have generalized dentition Senses in addition to the brain Expansion in addition to increasing complexity of brain-visual areas in addition to areas having to do with h in addition to s (humans especially!) Color visionall diurnal have it, nocturnal don’t Depth perception stereoscopic vision allows to see in three dimensions binocular vision-both eyes set toward front of head Decreased reliance on sense of smell (olfaction) – reduction in sensory areas of brain in addition to in snout
Development Maturation, learning in addition to behavior More efficient fetal nourishment, longer periods of gestation, smaller numbers of offspring (a single birth norm), delayed maturation, extension of whole life span Greater dependence on flexible, learned behavior-greater parental in offspring Tendency to live in social groups in addition to permanent association of adult males with the group (most tend to associate at least with offspring), male association uncommon in all but primates Tendency as long as diurnal activity patterns
Kennedy, Randall Contributing Editor
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