Print culture Why important Public opinion Output (source: ESTC) The end of censorship
Lobo, Camella, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Print culture Mark Knights Why important Role in fostering national identity Role in undermining morality in addition to piety Role in popular politics in addition to re as long as m movements Vehicle as long as enlightenment in addition to debate As a commodity Reading practices Current debates about censorship in addition to regulation Public opinion Joseph Danvers MP as long as Totnes 1738: I believe the people of Great Britain are governed by a power that was never heard of as a supreme authority in any age or country be as long as e it is the government of the press. Habermas in addition to the public sphere: press was vehicle by which the private reasonings of the bourgeois classes were made public. Initially public discussion focused on literary in addition to artistic productions but politics quickly flowed into this sphere. This created a new sort of politics. It is thus linked to middle class culture. By encourageing public intervention in politics the press acted to undermine traditional structures in addition to as long as ms of political life. As politics became more open it became more influenced by middle class.
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1779 meeting of the politicians Output (source: ESTC) The end of censorship Pre-publication censorship lapsed 1695 But other means 1712 Stamp Act Libel prosecutions [1792 libel act gave juries competence] Seditious libel [Paine, 1792; in addition to as long as selling Paines work] General warrants [Wilkes]. 1763 John Wilkes was prosecuted as long as libel, as long as writing an article in his newspaper the North Briton that was fiercely critical of George IIIs minister Lord Bute. ban on reporting of parliamentary news until 1771 (though regularly printed 1731 onwards, sometimes in allegorical as long as m; in addition to earlier division lists) 1790s: increase in stamp duties 1789 in addition to 1797; 1798 requirement as long as names in addition to addresses of publishers on prints; 1799 registry of printing presses; 1792 proclamation vs tumultuous meetings in addition to seditious writings; 1795 Treasonable Practices Act 1819 in wake of Peterloo Blasphemous in addition to Seditious Libels Act [Richard Carlile got 6 yrs as long as republishing Paine in 1819; another 2 yrs as long as seditious libel in 1831-2] 70 prosecutions 1808-1821, 34 resulting in convictions; 36 prosecutions 1821-34, resulting in 27 convictions
1795 1819 Government propag in addition to a Government sponsored propag in addition to a [Robert Harley in addition to Defoe in addition to Swift; 1742 enquiry found Walpole spent over £50,000 on it. London Journal was taken over in 1720s by govt in addition to its publication increased from 650 to 3700 by 1731. Also subsidy of the Daily Courant in addition to Daily Gazetteer (in 1741 almost 11,000 copies of this sent as long as distribution per week ]
Literacy: Early Eighteenth Century Horn Book Access to print Postal system: in 1764 35,000 copies of London newspapers passed through Post Office every week Libraries. 1753 British Library. Commercial lending libraries began in Engl in addition to in 1730s in addition to spread rapidly in second half of C18th. By 1800 there were about 1000. Clubs in addition to societies. Members paid annual fees to purchase books in addition to periodicals. There were 58 of these in Engl in addition to 1758-1800. By 1782 the Bristol Library Society had 137 members in addition to a library of 2296 books; between its foundation in 1773 in addition to 1798 its members borrowed 35,000 books. Booksellers Literacy Literacy: In Engl in addition to literacy rates rose from about 30% in 1640 to about 60% by mid C18th, with female literacy at about 35-40%. In Scotl in addition to in 1750s it was about 65%. In France in 1680s only about 30% of men in addition to 14% of women could sign their names
The Compleat Auctioneer Coffee houses. In 1739 there were c. 551 coffee houses, 207 inns in addition to 447 taverns in London. 1730s coffee house politicians
Multiple readers. In 1730s it was estimated that The Craftsman had 40 readers per issue, giving it a total readership of c.1/2m Reading practices Extensive/intensive reading [1773, Dr. Johnson No Sir, do you read books through ] Letters to editors interaction; moral guidance [Athenian Mercury 1690s] Advertisements commercial but also entertaining Single readers; interiority; novels By end of C18th some 85-90 new novels a year were published in Engl in addition to .
Genres Importance of religious works Popular in addition to cheap print: ballads, almanacs, h in addition to bills 1780 Englishmans delight in news Newspapers After 1695 rapid spread of newspaper press: 1679-82 papers had been twice weekly; in 1695 tri-weeklies appeared; 1696 first evening newspaper; first daily paper in 1702; first Sunday only appeared 1779. France had no daily newspaper until last quarter of C18th; London had one in 1702 in addition to had half a dozen by 1730s. Overall consumption: c.2.5m in 1713; 9.4m in 1760; 12.6m by 1775; 16m by 1801. Print-runs: 1712 Stamp Act returns show best-selling paper (Post Man) sold 3812 copies; in 1720s London Journal had 10,000 run; this type of figure was not exceeded be as long as e early C19th.
Provincial newspapers earliest provincial paper was in Norwich in 1701; In mid 1720s there were 24 provincial ones, 41 by 1740s By 1780 there were 50 provincial newspapers. 9 in Scotl in addition to . By 1800 Scotl in addition to had 13 papers in addition to twice as many again by 1820. By 1820 GB had over 300 papers in all. Most of the provincial papers padded out local news with material from London ones. This helped create national concept: easier to imagine the country. Provincial papers had circulations of hundreds. Hampshire Chronicle 1781-3 had run of 1050-1100. Other types of periodicals e.g Tatler (1709-11) in addition to Spectator (1711-12). A case study: Graphic satire Hogarth. Social, moral, religious in addition to political satire. Hogarths depiction of Wilkes sold 40,000 copies in 4 weeks. a whole issue of the North Briton devoted to attacking Hogarth. Boot in addition to the Blockhead [Bute in addition to Hogarth]
3 per week in 1780s; 7-10 by 1830s. Print shops; Holl in addition to s exhibition of caricatures Clientele The Repeal 1766 re Stamp Act sold 2000 copies in 4 days
1774 Miss macaroni 1774 Spectators at a print shop 1783 print shop
In 1820s lithographs became popular. By 1830s the single prints were few – replaced by comic journal with text interspersed with cartoons. Why sexual in addition to satirical humour found less favour shift of manners in addition to morals. Combination of text in addition to picture in the new cheap press productions meant less dem in addition to .
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