Process Addictions Exercise Dependence Definition Criteria as long as Exercise Dependence Signs of Exercise Dependence
Melanson, Donald, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Process Addictions Erik Sanchez Elizabeth Tse Maleenee Beuhler Nishant Munugala Exercise Dependence Other names: Exercise addiction Obligatory exercise Compulsive athleticism Compulsive exercise Exercise abuse Anorexia athletica Definition There is no as long as mal DSM-IV definition is physical activity that is extreme in frequency in addition to duration, relatively resistant to change, in addition to often accompanied by an irresistable impulse to exercise even when injury, fatigue, or other personal demans persist Source: University of Florida College of Health in addition to Human Per as long as mance exercise, Center as long as Exercise Science
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Criteria as long as Exercise Dependence (1) Tolerance: need as long as increased amounts of exercise to achieve desired effect; diminished effect with continued use of same amount of exercise (2) Withdrawal: characteristic withdrawal symptoms as long as exercise (e.g., anxiety, fatigue) or exercise is taken to relieve or avoid symptoms (3) Intention Effect: exercise is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended (4) Lack of Control: a persistent desire or unsuccessful ef as long as t to cut down or control exercise (5) Time: a great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain exercise (e.g., physical activity vacations) (6) Reduction in Other Activities: social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of exercise (7) Continuance: exercise is continued despite knowledge of having a persisting/recurriing physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the exercise (e.g., continued running despite injury). (Hausenblas in addition to Downs, 2002) Signs of Exercise Dependence It interferes with daily activities in addition to relationships. You believe that bad things will happen if you dont work out. You develop a perfectionist attitude toward exercise in addition to your body. You ignore the signs of illness, injury or fatigue in addition to work out despite them. You set unattainable goals (miles run, hours worked out, percentage of body fat, etc.) You ignore friendships or satisfying hobbies in order to exercise. National Association of Anorexia Nervosa in addition to Associated Consequences Psychological Anxiety Depression Worthlessness Insomnia Social Neglect relationships Social withdrawal Physical Damaged tendons, ligaments, bones, cartilage, in addition to joints Loss of muscle mass Ammhenorea (females) – Osteoperosis Eating Disorders Gastro-intestinal blood loss in addition to anemia Myocardial infarction in addition to death Jim Fixx – tolerant to ischemic heart disease
Treatment OCD Therapist Third wave cognitive-behavioral therapy Acceptance in addition to commitment therapy (ACT) as long as treating many disorders including addiction Major advocate, Steve Hayes Not to fight negative feelings but to accept them as part of life Mindfulness Work toward life values Treatment (continued) Cognitive therapy strategy is normally to change negative feelings, not accept them Multiple studies showed that ACT proved more effective than regular cognitive therapy including ones on depression (Haynes 2006) in addition to psychotics (Haynes 2002) Criticized as long as being too much like a religion Tranquilizers Medicine Tranquilizers Antidepressants Treament Centers Related Disorders Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Bulimia Nervosa
Compulsive Overeating Compulsive Overeating Most people feeling control over eating habits, meaning eating when you are hungry in addition to stopping when you are satisfied. Compulsive behavior is defined as acting on an internal as long as ce that leads one to act against their will. Compulsive overeating usually in the as long as m of bingeing or excessive snacking Bulimia Nervosa in addition to Binge Eating Disorder Binge (DSM-IV) Eating, in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat in a similar period of time under similar circumstances A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode People describe feeling that they cannot stop eating or control what or how much they are eating
Bulimia Nervosa Recurrent episodes of binge eating. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior in order to prevent weight gain Purge subtype: self-induced vomiting; misuse of laxatives, diuretics, enemas, or other medications Non-purge subtype: fasting; or excessive exercise These behaviors both occur, on average, at least twice (once) a week as long as 3 months. Stems from a negative perception body shape in addition to weight. Binge Eating Disorder Recurrent episodes of binge eating. Marked distress regarding binge eating. The binge eating occurs, on average, at least 2 days a week as long as 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Causes of Compulsive Overeating Socio-cultural issues: Body image Fast Food Society Diet craze Interpersonal issues: Emotional eating Susceptibility to addiction Self-Regulation Issues
Is Compulsive Eating an Addiction Other Indications of Addiction Laboratory findings have provided evidence that binge eating, like addictions, might involve the endogenous opioid systems (Grigson, 2002; Volkow & Wise, 2005) in addition to the mesocortical dopamine system (Davis, Strachan, & Berkson, 2004; Volkow & Wise, 2005). Low levels of dopamine D2 receptors have been reported in individuals with compulsive disorders, including both drug addiction in addition to compulsive overeating Eating disorders in addition to substance-use disorders co-occur at higher than expected rates, particularly among individuals who binge eat(elevated rates of eating disorders are reported by individuals with substance-use disorders) It has been postulated that compulsive overeating may occur to compensate as long as reduced activation of reward circuits which are modulated by dopamine Wang et al. (2001) No Gold St in addition to ard It is difficult to determine whether binge eating is an addiction because no gold st in addition to ard exists by which to judge a behavior as an addiction. Ultimately, whether binge eating is considered an addiction will depend on the breadth of the definition selected.
DSM-IV Substance Dependence Criteria Binge eating larger amounts than intended Persistent desire or unsuccessful ef as long as ts to control binge eating Withdrawal (e.g., restlessness, irritability, headaches) Great deal of time spent binge eating or recovering from the effects Study Community women (N=79) with a current diagnosis of BED The substance-dependence module was used to assess current substance dependence, with the term substance referring to binge eating rather than psychoactive drugs. Data collected via interviews Stephanie E. Cassina in addition to Kristin M. von Ranson, a, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
Results 92.4% of participants qualified as addicts Participants engaged in a mean of 4.0 eating binges/week (SD=1.8) in addition to had been binge eating as long as a mean of 14.8 years (SD=11.9). Eating disorder treatment had been sought by 20 participants (25.3%) from a physician, psychiatrist, psychologist, counselor, support group, or 12-step program. Only 6 participants (7.6%) had been as long as mally diagnosed with an eating disorder by a psychologist or psychiatrist. Current Views & Future Implications Increasing view that some foods are addictive in addition to that eating disorders are a as long as m of addiction is widespread among mental health professionals (Benton, 2010; von Ranson & Cassin, 2007; Wilson, Perrin, Rosselli, Striegel-Moore, DeBar, & Kraemer, 2009). More recently, the notion that obesity might be a as long as m of addiction has been gaining popularity, with the case being made that the study of drug addiction may in as long as m our underst in addition to ing of obesity (Volkow & Wise, 2005). Future approaches considering treating eating disorders(Bulimia Nervosa in addition to BED)as an addiction may be a key step in finding better treatments Internet Addiction
What is Internet Addiction Internet addiction is defined as time-consuming, incontrollable, or distressing internet use which results in social occupational, or financial difficulties. (DellOsso et al, 2008) Some Internet Facts The internet became commercially available only 20 years ago in the early 1990s. According to the International Telecommunications Union, as of 2009, almost a quarter (~22%) of the worlds population uses the internet. Since the internet is so young, relative to other drugs, internet addiction is a fairly new disorder in addition to has only recently been considered a major treat to society due to its addictive nature. Types of Internet Addiction Addiction to online video games (role playing games) Online gambling Cybersex Chat rooms
Prevalence of Internet Addiction In an early survey regarding internet addiction it was found that an estimated 6% of internet users fit the profile of an internet addict as is currently defined by the DSM IV. (Greenfield 1999) Similar research has been done around the world. Prevalence (continued) Since there is no st in addition to ard diagnostic criteria there is variability in the estimated number of users who are addicted ranging from 6-15%. It was found that the highest rate of addiction was among college students ranging from 13-18.4%. Adolescents from 12-18 years of age had the lowest risk of internet addiction ranging from 4.6-4.7%. Symptoms of Internet Addiction Excessive, non-essential use of the internet defined by 8-60+ hours/week depending on the criteria used. Loss of sleep. Delay of work. Disregard as long as normal drives. Seclusion
References (Exercise) http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/compulsive-exercise.html Compulsive Exercise Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: October 2010 D. M. W. De Coverley Veale, Exercise Dependence British Journal of Addiction 1987, 82, 735-740 Hollyann E. Jenkins in addition to M. Williams, Ph.D., Clinical Psychologist. Source: American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic in addition to Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Association, 2000. http://www.brainphysics.com/exercise- addiction.php When working out shifts from a healthy habit to obsession, Marina Benjamen, Ph.D. http:// www.anad.org/news/when-working-out-shifts-from-a-healthy-habit-to-obsession/ Eating Disorders Review September/October 2010 Volume 21, Number 5 Adria N. Pearson, Michelle Heffner, in addition to Victoria M. Follette. Foreword by Steven C. Hayes Addiction Rerearch, 1997, Vol. 5 (2) pp.161-168 EXERCISE ADDICTION: A CASE STUDY MARK CRIFFITHS http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/apk/ces/affil/exPsy/topics.php Heather A. Hausenblas in addition to Danielle Symons Downs, Exercise Dependence Scale-21 Manual The Third Wave of Therapy By John Cloud Monday, Feb. 13, 2006 Time Magazine References cont. Dell’Osso, B., in addition to Et Al. “Escitalopram in the Treatment of Impulsive-compulsive Internet Usage Disorder: an Open-label Trial Followed by a Double-blind Discontinuation Phase.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 3rd ser. 69 (2008): 452-56. Web. 1 Mar. 2011. Young, Kimberly S., in addition to Cristiano Nabuco De. Abreu. Internet Addiction: a H in addition to book in addition to Guide to Evaluation in addition to Treatment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Print. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/10/03/science/biology-of-brain-may-hold-key- as long as -gamblers.htmlpagewanted=print&src=pm http://psychcentral.com/archives/gambling04.htm http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/gamblers-fallacy.html Adam, T., in addition to E. Epel. “Stress, Eating in addition to the Reward System.” Physiology & Behavior 91.4 (2007): 449-58. Print. Cassin, S., in addition to K. Vonranson. “Is Binge Eating Experienced as an Addiction” Appetite 49.3 (2007): 687-90. Print. Cota, Daniel. “Cannabinoids, Opioids in addition to Eating Behavior: The Molecular Face of Hedonism” Web. 08 Mar. 2011.
Melanson, Donald Contributing Editor
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