Process, Volume, in addition to Variety Process Strategies Process Strategies

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Process, Volume, in addition to Variety Process Strategies Process Strategies

Cornish College of the Arts, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Process StrategiesHow so that produce a product or provide a service thatMeets or exceeds customer requirementsMeets cost in addition to managerial goalsHas long term effects onEfficiency in addition to production flexibilityCosts in addition to qualityProcess StrategiesFour basic strategiesProcess focusRepetitive focusProduct focusMass customizationWithin these basic strategies there are many ways they may be implemented? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallProcess, Volume, in addition to VarietyProcess Focusprojects, job shops (machine, print, hospitals, restaurants)Arnold Palmer HospitalRepetitive(autos, motorcycles, home appliances)Harley-DavidsonProduct Focus(commercial baked goods, steel, glass, beer)Frito-LayHigh Varietyone or few units per run,(allows customization)Changes in Modulesmodest runs, standardized modulesChanges in Attributes (such as grade, quality, size, thickness, etc.) long runs onlyMass Customization(difficult so that achieve, but huge rewards)Dell ComputerPoor Strategy (Both fixed in addition to variable costs are high)Figure 7.1

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Dealing alongside Product Variety: Mass CustomizationMassCustomizationHighHighLowLowLongShortLead TimeCostCustomizationTactics in consideration of Matching Capacity so that DemandMaking staffing changesAdjusting equipmentPurchasing additional machinerySelling or leasing out existing equipmentImproving processes so that increase throughputRedesigning products so that facilitate more throughputAdding process flexibility so that meet changing product preferencesClosing facilitiesBottleneck Analysis in addition to Theory of ConstraintsEach work area can have its own unique capacityCapacity analysis determines the throughput capacity of workstations in a systemA bottleneck is a limiting factor or constraintA bottleneck has the lowest effective capacity in a system

Process Times in consideration of Stations, Systems, in addition to CyclesThe process time of a station is the time so that produce a unit at that single workstationThe process time of a system is the time of the longest process in the system ? the bottleneckThe process cycle time is the time it takes in consideration of a product so that go through the production process alongside no waiting? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallA Three-Station Assembly LineFigure S7.4Process Times in consideration of Stations, Systems, in addition to CyclesThe system process time is the process time of the bottleneck after dividing by the number of parallel operationsThe system capacity is the inverse of the system process timeThe process cycle time is the total time through the longest path in the system

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? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCapacity AnalysisTwo identical sandwich linesEach line has two workers in addition to a toaster so that perform the three operations All completed sandwiches are wrapped? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCapacity AnalysisToast work station has the longest processing time ? 40 secondsThe two lines each deliver a sandwich every 40 seconds so the process time of the combined lines is 40/2 = 20 secondsAt 37.5 seconds, wrapping in addition to delivery has the longest processing time in addition to is the bottleneckCapacity per hour is 3,600 seconds/37.5 seconds/sandwich = 96 sandwiches per hourProcess cycle time is 30 + 15 + 20 + 40 + 37.5 = 142.5 seconds? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCapacity AnalysisStandard process in consideration of cleaning teethCleaning in addition to examining X-rays can happen simultaneously

? 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice HallCapacity AnalysisAll possible paths must be comparedCleaning path is 2 + 2 + 4 + 24 + 8 + 6 = 46 minutesX-ray exam path is 2 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 8 + 6 = 27 minutesLongest path involves the hygienist cleaning the teethBottleneck is the hygienist at 24 minutesHourly capacity is 60/24 = 2.5 patientsPatient should be complete in 46 minutesTheory of ConstraintsFive-step process in consideration of recognizing in addition to managing limitationsStep 1: Identify the constraintStep 2: Develop a plan in consideration of overcoming the constraintsStep 3: Focus resources on accomplishing Step 2Step 4: Reduce the effects of constraints by offloading work or expanding capabilityStep 5: Once overcome, go back so that Step 1 in addition to find new constraintsBottleneck ManagementRelease work orders so that the system at the pace set by the bottleneckLost time at the bottleneck represents lost time in consideration of the whole systemIncreasing the capacity of a non-bottleneck station is a mirageIncreasing the capacity of a bottleneck increases the capacity of the whole system

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