Professor Peter Kalmus Physics Department http://www.ph.qmul.ac.uk p.i.p.kalmus@

Professor Peter Kalmus Physics Department http://www.ph.qmul.ac.uk p.i.p.kalmus@ www.phwiki.com

Professor Peter Kalmus Physics Department http://www.ph.qmul.ac.uk p.i.p.kalmus@

Peterson, Brent, Contributing Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Professor Peter Kalmus Physics Department http://www.ph.qmul.ac.uk p.i.p.kalmus@qmul.ac.uk Particles in addition to the Universe Queen Mary / Goldsmiths’ Astrophysics. July 2004 Supernova 1987A Neutrino numbers Emitted ~ 1058 Hit Earth ~ 1029 Hit tank ~ 1017 Interact ~ 10 SN 1987A Earth Energy release ~ 1046 J SN ~ 1046 J 8 arc min Large Magellanic Cloud S in addition to uleak – 69o 202

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10 16 1 TeV 10 13 1 GeV 10 10 1 MeV 10 7 1 keV 10 4 1 eV 10 1 meV T/K Energy Particle Era Nuclear Era Atomic Era Primordial Soup Sun as long as ms Today ps ns m s ms s 1 day 1 year Time Era of Astronomy Tevatron LEP History of the Universe 10-12 10-6 100 1013 1018 Time since Big Bang / s LHC Hot as Hell 445oC = Boiling point of Brimstone

Primordial Soup CERN style 100 GeV / particle Ingredients 56% quarks 16% gluons 9% charged leptons 9% W & Z particles 5% neutrinos 2% photons 2% gravitons 1% Higgs bosons Recipe by Rocky Kolb Hot 3 x 1015K Condensed Missing ingredients Kepler, Newton T2 = 4 p2 a3 G Mo Sun Inverse square law a Nuclei : how were they made H, He, (Li) Big Bang Li, Be, B Spallation by Cosmic Rays Other elements Inside Stars Supernova You are all made of star material ! Q/A MeV

Atom ~ 10-10m Nucleus Early 20th Century electron, nucleus electric as long as ce electromagnetism 1930s bunch of grapes town ~ 10-15m Neutrinos Antiparticles 1950s, 1960s > 200 new “elementary” () particles Feel weak as long as ce “predicted” later discovered 100,000,000,000,000 per second pass through each person from the Sun Equal in addition to opposite properties “predicted” later discovered Annihilate with normal particles Now used in PET scans Many new particles created in high energy collisions Convert energy to mass. Einstein E = mc2 Today’s building blocks proton = u u d +2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = +1 neutron = u d d +2/3 -1/3 -1/3 = 0 4 particles very simple multiply by 3 (generations) multiply by 2 (antiparticles) First generation

muon m- -1 m-neutrino nm 0 tau t- -1 t-neutrino nt 0 charm c +2/3 strange s -1/3 top t +2/3 bottom b -1/3 Also antileptons antiquarks 6 leptons 6 antileptons 6 quarks 6 antiquarks Earth, Moon, X Solar system X Antistars in our Galaxy Other (anti-) galaxies Anti-hydrogen : made in lab Bulk antimatter Where Difficult to detect Signal e+ + e – g + g 0.511 MeV g-ray “line” Radiation pressure g g g Leidenfrost demo

Constituents Internal structure Insect Resolution limited by wavelength of light l l ~ 5 x 10-7 m ~ 5 x 103 atom ~ 5 x 108 nucleus To “probe” elementary particles need l lower by factor more than 109 Quantum physics Particles have wave properties l = h / p Relativity high velocities particle creation in addition to annihilation E = mc2 Accelerator Extract beam Injector Vacuum ring RF cavities electric kick ~ Bending electro- magnet Focusing electro- magnet Circular orbit demo

Proton source demo Wire chambers Also usually made of wires Tracks of charged particles from electronic signals x coord : wire no. 1 mm y coord : drift time 0.1 mm z coord : current few cm division

Calorimeter Light guides Photomultiplier Metal Scintillator Waveshifter Particle creates a shower. Scintillation light measures energy deposited Waveshifter demo

Peterson, Brent Camping Life Magazine Contributing Writer www.phwiki.com

Forces by exchange Analogy only Useful mental picture Attraction Unification of the fundamental as long as ces of nature Electricity Magnetism Apples Planets Electro- magnetic Gravity Faraday, Maxwell Newton

Unification of the fundamental as long as ces of nature Electricity Magnetism Apples Planets Electro- magnetic Weak Strong Gravity Faraday, Maxwell Newton Electroweak unified as long as ce Salam, Weinberg, Glashow g, W +, W -, Z 0 0 80 80 90 GeV Do the W in addition to Z particles really exist Collider Inject anti- protons Inject protons Collide 2 beams Inside vacuum RF cavities electric kick ~ Bending electro- magnet Focusing electro- magnet Carlo Rubbia Antiprotons Simon van der Meer Stochastic cooling

W in addition to Z particles discovered UA1 Collaboration at CERN Included following members of Queen Mary Results confirmed by another CERN collaboration, in addition to few years later at Fermilab USA Electroweak unification confirmed Nature’s fundamental as long as ces reduced from 4 to 3 Nobel Prizes p.i.p.kalmus@qmul.ac.uk http://www.ph.qmul.ac.uk Big Bang Hot soup ~ 12 billion years Particle physics Recreates conditions accelerators, detectors of early universe Elementary 6 quarks 6 leptons building blocks + antiparticles + dark matter Fundamental Strong Gravity Electroweak as long as ces (gluons) (gravitons) ( g W+ W- Zo) Chemical elements Stars Supernova

Peterson, Brent Contributing Writer

Peterson, Brent is from United States and they belong to Camping Life Magazine and they are from  Carson, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Peterson, Brent deal with the subjects like Outdoors/Nature

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Westminster College and short form of this particular Institution is PA and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.