Progress 8 Accountability, assessment in addition to learningRobert Coe, Durham UniversityO

Progress 8 Accountability, assessment in addition to learningRobert Coe, Durham UniversityO www.phwiki.com

Progress 8 Accountability, assessment in addition to learningRobert Coe, Durham UniversityO

Ramakrishnan, Naren, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Progress 8 Accountability, assessment in addition to learningRobert Coe, Durham UniversityOutlineProgress 8: Why is it a better measureAccountability: Intended in addition to unintended effectsTracking in addition to progress: dos in addition to don’tsActual progress (learning): How do we get more of it2Progress 8 Progress is not an illusion, it happens, but it is slow in addition to invariably disappointing. George Orwell

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https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/progress-8-school-per as long as mance-measure4What is good about Progress 8All students & grades countReduces incentive/reward as long as recruiting ‘better’ studentsFairer to schools with challenging intakesHelps get the best teachers/leaders in most difficult schoolsRequires an academic foundation as long as allAllows flexibility in qualification choices5What could still be improved‘Interchangeable’ qualifications should be made comparable or correctedBias against low SES schools should be correctedDichotomous ‘floor st in addition to ards’ & school level analysis6

Comparability of GCSE grades7From Coe (2008)Value-added in addition to school compositionr = 0.58(from Yellis 2004 data)What’s the easiest way to a secondary Ofsted Outst in addition to ing9From Trevor Burton’s blog ‘Eating Elephants’‘Ofsted has not disputed the figures but insists that its inspectors pay “close attention” to prior pupil attainment in addition to take a broad view of schools.’ (TES)

AccountabilityFoul-tasting medicine10Research on accountabilityMeta-analysis of US studies by Lee (2008)Small positive effects on attainment (ES=0.08)Impact of publishing league tables (Engl in addition to vs Wales) (Burgess et al 2013)Overall small positive effect (ES=0.09) Reduces rich/poor gapNo impact on school segregationOther reviews: mostly agree, but mixed findings Lack of evidence about long-term, important outcomes11Dysfunctional side effectsExtrinsic replaces intrinsic motivationNarrowing focus on measuresGaming (playing silly games)Cheating (actual cheating)Helplessness: giving upRisk avoidance: playing it safePressure: stress undermines per as long as manceCompetition: sub-optimal as long as system12Some evidence as long as all these, but mostly selective in addition to anecdotal

Hard questionsImagine there was no accountability. What would you do differentlyWould students be better off as a resultNo – I wouldn’t do anything at all differentlyNot significantly – minor presentational changes onlyYes – students would be better off without accountability133. What actually stops you doing thisAccountability culturesTrustAutonomousConfidenceChallengeSupportiveImprovement-focusProblem-solvingLong-termGenuine qualityEvaluationDistrustControlledFearThreatCompetitiveTarget-focusImage presentationQuick fixTick-list qualitySanctionsTrustTrust: “a willingness to be vulnerable to another party based on the confidence that that party is benevolent, reliable, competent, honest, in addition to open” (Hoy et al, 2006)Schools “with weak trust reports had virtually no chance of showing improvement” (Bryk & Schneider, 2002, p. 111).‘Academic Optimism’ (Hoy et al, 2006)Academic Emphasis: press as long as high academic achievementCollective Efficacy: teachers’ belief in capacity to have positive effects on studentsTrust: teachers’ trust in parents in addition to studentsIf what you are doing isn’t good, do you want toCover it up, ignore, hide, minimise its importanceExpose it, shine a light, maximise the learning opportunity15

Assessment issuesHarder than you think16Problems with levels “Assessment should focus on whether children have understood these key concepts rather than achieved a particular level.” Tim Oates“ pursuit of levels (or sub-levels!) of achievement displaced the learning that the levels were meant to represent” Dylan WiliamThree meanings of levelsSummary of ‘average’ per as long as manceBest fit judgementThresholds as long as criteria met17Can criteria define the st in addition to ard Eg KS1 Per as long as mance Descriptors: Writing Compositionworking below national st in addition to ard“capital letters as long as some names of people, places in addition to days of the week”working towards national st in addition to ard“capital letters as long as some proper nouns in addition to as long as the personal pronoun ‘I’ ”working at national st in addition to ard“capital letters as long as almost all proper nouns”working at mastery st in addition to ard“a variety of sentences with different structures in addition to functions, correctly punctuated”18

Can teaching to criteria promote good learning19How good is teacher assessment “The literature on teachers’ qualitative judgments contains many depressing accounts of the fallibility of teachers’ judgments. A number of effects have been identified, including unreliability (both inter-rater discrepancies, in addition to the inconsistencies of one rater over time), order effects (the carry-over of positive or negative impressions from one appraisal to the next, or from one item to the next on a test paper), the halo effect (letting one’s personal impression of a student interfere with the appraisal of that student’s achievement), a general tendency towards leniency or severity on the part of certain assessors, in addition to the influence of extraneous factors (such as neatness or h in addition to writing).”(Sadler, 1987, p194)Reliability of portfolio assessment‘The positive news about the reported effects of the assessment program contrasted sharply with the empirical findings about the quality of the per as long as mance data it yielded. The unreliability of scoring alone was sufficient to preclude most of the intended uses of the scores’ (Koretz et al., 1994, p 7) “the lack of reliability, as measured by inter-rated reliability, was thought to be due to insufficient specification of tasks to be included in the portfolios in addition to inadequate training of the teachers”‘Shapley in addition to Bush concluded that, after three years of development, the portfolio assessment did not provide high quality in as long as mation about student achievements as long as either instructional or in as long as mational purposes.’ (Harlen, 2004, p39)

Bias in TA vs st in addition to ardised testsTeacher assessment is biased againstPupils with SENPupils with challenging behaviourEAL & FSM pupilsPupils whose personality is different from the teacher’sTeacher assessment tends to rein as long as ce stereotypesEg boys perceived to be better at mathsethnic minority vs subject23Construct validityWhat does the test measure What uses of these scores are appropriate/inappropriateCriterion-related validityCorrelations with other assessments or measures of the same construct. Correlations may be concurrent or predictive. ReliabilityEg test-retest, internal consistency, person-separation Freedom from biasesEvidence of testing as long as specific bias in the test, such as gender, social class, race/ethnicity. RangeFor what ranges (age, abilities, etc) is the test appropriate Is it free from ceiling/floor effects Quality criteria as long as assessments (1)

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RobustnessIs the test ‘objective’, in the sense that it cannot be influenced by the expectations or desires of the judge or assessor Educational valueDoes the process of taking the test, or the feedback it generates, have direct value to teachers in addition to learners Is it perceived positively Testing time requiredHow long does the test (or each element of it) take each student Is any additional time required to set it up Workload/admin requirementsDoes the test have to be invigilated or administered by a qualified person Do the responses have to be marked How much time is needed as long as this Quality criteria as long as assessments (2)How do we get learners to progress (According to the evidence)27

1. We do that already (don’t we)Reviewing previous learningSetting high expectationsUsing higher-order questionsGiving feedback to learnersHaving deep subject knowledgeUnderst in addition to ing student misconceptionsManaging time in addition to resourcesBuilding relationships of trust in addition to challengeDealing with disruption282. Do we always do thatChallenging students to identify the reason why an activity is taking place in the lessonAsking a large number of questions in addition to checking the responses of all studentsRaising different types of questions (i.e., process in addition to product) at appropriate difficulty levelGiving time as long as students to respond to questionsSpacing-out study or practice on a given topic, with gaps in between as long as as long as gettingMaking students take tests or generate answers, even be as long as e they have been taught the materialEngaging students in weekly in addition to monthly review293. We don’t do that (hopefully)Use praise lavishlyAllow learners to discover key ideas as long as themselvesGroup learners by abilityEncourage re-reading in addition to highlighting to memorise key ideasAddress issues of confidence in addition to low aspirations be as long as e you try to teach contentPresent in as long as mation to learners in their preferred learning style Ensure learners are always active, rather than listening passively, if you want them to remember30

What CPD benefits students Promotes ‘great teaching’PCK, assessment, learning, high expectations, collective responsibilityFocuses on student outcomesSupported byExternal input: challenge in addition to expertisePeer networks: communities of practiceSchool leaders must actively leadBuilds teacher underst in addition to ing in addition to skillsChallenges in addition to engages teachersIntegrates theory in addition to active skills practice Enough learning time (monthly as long as min 6 months: 30hrs+)31Timperley et al 2007Advice No one wants advice, only corroborationJohn Steinbeck32AdviceStudy in addition to learn about assessment: just because you do it doesn’t mean you really underst in addition to itMonitor in addition to critically evaluate everything you do against hard outcomes. If it’s great, be pleased, but not everything will beDo what is right, whether or not it is rewarded by accountability systemsBe willing to challenge assumptions about what great teaching looks like: take the evidence seriouslyInvest in the kind of CPD that makes a difference33

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Ramakrishnan, Naren is from United States and they belong to Computer and they are from  Los Alamitos, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Ramakrishnan, Naren deal with the subjects like Computers

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