Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group as long as Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group as long as Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) www.phwiki.com

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group as long as Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Meitin, Patrick, Field Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group as long as Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [DS-UWB Proposal Update] Date Submitted: [July 2004] Source: [Reed Fisher(1), Ryuji Kohno(2), Hiroyo Ogawa(2), Honggang Zhang(2), Kenichi Takizawa(2)] Company [ (1) Oki Industry Co.,Inc.,(2)National Institute of In as long as mation in addition to Communications Technology (NICT) & NICT-UWB Consortium ]Connector’s Address [(1)2415E. Maddox Rd., Bu as long as d, GA 30519,USA, (2)3-4, Hikarino-oka, Yokosuka, 239-0847, Japan] Voice:[(1)+1-770-271-0529, (2)+81-468-47-5101], FAX: [(2)+81-468-47-5431], E-Mail:[(1)reedfisher@juno.com, (2)kohno@nict.go.jp, honggang@nict.go.jp, takizawa@nict.go.jp ] Source: [Michael Mc Laughlin] Company [decaWave, Ltd.] Voice:[+353-1-295-4937], FAX: [-], E-Mail:[michael@decawave.com] Source: [Matt Welborn] Company [Freescale Semiconductor, Inc] Address [8133 Leesburg Pike Vienna, VA USA] Voice:[703-269-3000], E-Mail:[matt.welborn@freescal.com] Re: [] Abstract: [Technical update on DS-UWB (Merger 2) Proposal] Purpose: [Provide technical in as long as mation to the TG3a voters regarding DS-UWB (Merger 2) Proposal] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis as long as discussion in addition to is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in as long as m in addition to content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges in addition to accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE in addition to may be made publicly available by P802.15. Outline Merger 2 Proposal Overview DS-UWB + option of [Common Signaling Mode (CSM) + MB-OFDM] Complexity/Scalability of UWB implementations Spectral control options as long as DS-UWB Per as long as mance Overview of DS-UWB Proposal One of the goals of Merged Proposal 2 is DS-UWB in addition to MB-OFDM harmonization & interoperability through a Common Signaling Mode (CSM) High rate modes using either DS-UWB or MB-OFDM Best characteristics of both approaches with most flexibility A piconet could have a pair of DS in addition to a pair of MB devices CSM wave as long as m provides control & interoperation between DS-UWB in addition to MB-OFDM All devices work through an 802.15.3 MAC User/device only sees common MAC interface Hides the actual PHY wave as long as m in use

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The Common Signaling Mode: What Is The Goal The common signaling mode (CSM) allows the 802.15.3 MAC to arbitrate between multiple UWB PHYs It is an “etiquette” to manage peaceful coexistence between the different UWB PHYs Multiple UWB PHYs will exist in the world DS-UWB & MB-OFDM are first examples CSM improves the case as long as international regulatory approval Common control mechanism as long as a multitude of applications Planned cooperation (i.e. CSM) gives far better QoS in addition to throughput than allowing un-coordinated operation in addition to interference CSM provides flexibility/extensibility within the IEEE st in addition to ard Allows future growth & scalability Provides options to meet diverse application needs Enables interoperability in addition to controls interference What Does CSM Look Like One of the MB-OFDM b in addition to s! MB-OFDM (3-b in addition to ) Theoretical Spectrum 3978 3100 5100 Proposed Common Signaling Mode B in addition to (500+ MHz b in addition to width) 9-cycles per BPSK “chip” Frequency (MHz) DS-UWB Low B in addition to Pulse Shape (RRC) 3-cycles per BPSK “chip” CSM Specifics We have designed a specific wave as long as m as long as the CSM BPSK modulation as long as simple in addition to reliable per as long as mance Length 24 spreading codes using 442 MHz chip rate Harmonically related center frequency of 3978 MHz Rate ½ convolutional code with k=6 Provides 9.2 Mbps throughput Extendable up to 110 Mbps using variable code in addition to FEC rates 802.15.3 MAC works great with CSM CSM can be used as long as control in addition to beaconing Negligible impact on piconet throughput (beacons are <1%) Requires negligible additional cost/complexity as long as either radio MB-OFDM already has a DS mode that is used as long as synchronization This proposal is based on DS-UWB operating with a 26 MHz cell-phone crystal Very low cost yet terrific phase-noise in addition to accuracy (see GSM spec) Overview of DS-UWB Proposal DS-UWB proposed as a radio as long as h in addition to held with low-cost, ultra high-rate, ultra low-power, BPSK modulation using variable length spreading codes Scales to 1+ Gbps with low power - essential as long as mobile & h in addition to held applications Much lower complexity in addition to power consumption Overview of DS-UWB Proposal 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Wavelets are modulated with BPSK or QPSK Symbol is made with an N-chip code sequence Code is ternary (+1, 0, -1) Two wide 50%-b in addition to width contiguous b in addition to s Each captures unique propagation benefits of UWB B in addition to width in addition to Center Frequency Programmable Low b in addition to provides long wavelet High b in addition to provides short wavelet Wavelet = 3 cycles, packed back-to-back N-chips GHz Result is Not-spiky in either Time or Frequency Domain time volts DS-UWB Signal Generation Transmitter blocks required to support optional modes Scrambler K=6 FEC Encoder Conv. Bit Interleaver Input Data K=4 FEC Encoder 4-BOK Mapper Bit-to-Code Mapping Pulse Shaping Static Center Frequency Gray or Natural mapping Data scrambler using 15-bit LFSR (same as 802.15.3) Constraint-length k=6 convolutional code K=4 encoder can be used as long as lower complexity at high rates or to support iterative decoding as long as enhanced per as long as mance (e.g. CIDD) Convolutional bit interleaver protects against burst errors Variable length codes provide scalable data rates using BPSK Support as long as optional 4-BOK modes with little added complexity Data Rates Supported by DS-UWB Similar Modes defined as long as high b in addition to DS-UWB Architecture Is Highly Scaleable DS-UWB provides low & scalable receiver complexity ADC can range from 3 bits to 1 bit as long as super-low power implementation Rake pipeline & DFE can be optimized to trade off power & cost in multipath 16 fingers @ 220, 5 fingers @ 500, 2 fingers @ 1326Mbps Time duration of DFE scales (shrinks) at shorter range – higher rates. FEC can scale w/data rate (k=6 & k=4) or be turned-off as long as ultra low power DFE effectiveness in addition to simplicity proven in shipping chips – 3% of area UWB System Complexity & Power Consumption Two primary factors drive complexity & power consumption Processing needed to compensate as long as multipath channel Modulation requirements (e.g. low-order versus high-order) DS-UWB designed to operate with simple BPSK modulation as long as all rates Receiver functions operate at the symbol rate Optional 4-BOK has same complexity in addition to BER per as long as mance MB-OFDM operates at fixed 640 Mbps (raw) Designed to operate at high rate, then use carrier diversity (redundancy) in addition to /or strong FEC to combat multipath fading Diversity not used above 200 Mbps Fundamental Design Approach Differences Signal b in addition to width leads to different operating regimes DS-UWB uses 1.326 GHz b in addition to width MB-OFDM data BW is 412.5 MHz (100 tones x 4.125 MHz/tone) Modulation b in addition to width induces different fading statistics DS-UWB (single carrier UWB) results in frequency-selective fading with relatively low power fluctuation (variance) MB-OFDM (multi-carrier) creates a bank of parallel channels that experience flat fading with a Rayleigh distribution (deep fades) Motivations as long as different choices Different energy capture mechanism (rake vs. FFT) Different ISI compensation (time vs. frequency domain EQ) These fundamental differences affect both complexity & flexibility Significant impact on implementation, especially at high rates Analog Complexity Equivalent analog components have similar complexity Implications of Switchable UNII Filter (slide copied from Doc 03/141r3,p12) MB-OFDM is proposed to use the UNII b in addition to as long as B in addition to Group 2 If the operating BW includes the U-NII b in addition to , then interference mitigation strategies have to be included in the receiver design to prevent analog front-end saturation. Example: Switchable filter architecture. When no U-NII interference is present, use st in addition to ard pre-select filter. When U-NII interference is present, pass the receive signal through a different filter (notch filter) that suppresses the entire U-NII b in addition to . Problems with this approach: Extra switches more insertion loss in RX/TX chain. More external components higher BOM cost. More testing time. B in addition to -Select Filter Complexity MB-OFDM filter complexity depends on requirements to reject adjacent-b in addition to signal energy Depends on whether design is using the guard tones as long as real data or just PN modulated noise DS-UWB Filter Uses single fixed b in addition to width – filter provides rejection as long as OOB noise & RFI B in addition to width of DS-UWB > 1500 MHz Data tones Guard tones MB-OFDM B in addition to -Select Filter Complexity If guard tones are used as long as useful data, b in addition to filter must have very steep cut-off Transition region is very narrow Only 5 un-modulated tones between b in addition to s (~21 MHz) SOP per as long as mance also affected by filter design – rejection of adjacent b in addition to MAI as long as SOP If guard tones not used as long as data, then filter constraint is relaxed Transition region is a wider (15 tones ~62 MHz) Energy in guard b in addition to is distorted (not useful) May not meet FCC UWB requirement as long as 500 MHz Tight filter constraint Relaxed filter constraint Filter must reject MAI as long as SOP Data tones Guard tones Filter response Comparison of DS-UWB to MB-OFDM Digital Baseb in addition to Complexity as long as PHY Gate count estimates are based on MB-OFDM proposal team methodology detailed in IEEE Document 03/449r2 Gate counts converted to common clock (85.5 MHz) as long as comparison Explicit MB-OFDM gates counts have only been reported by proposers as long as a 110/200 Mbps implementation Other estimates of MB-OFDM Viterbi decoder in addition to FFT engine are provided in IEEE Document 03/343r0 Estimates as long as MB-OFDM 480 Mbps mode complexity are based on scaling of FFT engine, equalizer in addition to Viterbi decoder MB-OFDM estimates of 480 Mbps power available in 03/268r3 Details available in IEEE Document 04/164r0 Estimates as long as MB-OFDM 960 Mbps mode details are based on linear scaling of decoder in addition to FFT engine to 960 Mbps Assumes 6-bit ADC as long as 16-QAM operation DS-UWB gate estimates are detailed in IEEE Document 03/099r4 Methodology as long as estimating complexity of 16-finger rake, equalizer in addition to synchronization blocks are per MB-OFDM methodology

DS-UWB & MB-OFDM Digital Baseb in addition to Complexity Gate counts are normalized to 85.5 MHz Clock speeds to allow comparison Based on methodology presented by MB-OFDM proposal team (03/449r3) Other details of gate count computations in Documents 04/099 in addition to 04/256r0 Digital Baseb in addition to Complexity Comparison at ~1 Gbps Assumptions: MB-OFDM using 6-bit ADC, FFT is 2.25x & Viterbi is 4x of low rate. DS-UWB operating with no FEC at 1.362 Gbps Optional Improvement as long as Interference Mitigation (Approach 1):Analog type of SSA- Notch generation by using a simple analog delay line: Example Just Two taps delay line The output signal x(t) is given by By assuming that coefficients w0 in addition to w1 is time- invariant, then its signal in frequency domain is given by Now, we set w0=1 in addition to w1=a (a is in real value), we obtain A notch is generated at a frequency fn where X(fn)2=0, then The solutions are given by , m=1,2,3, As you can see, the coefficient a takes +1 or -1. It leads simple implementation. where p(t) is a pulse signal , in addition to d is delayed time by a delay line D. however, the coefficient a can take only real value. There as long as e, The right figure is an example; a is set to 1 in addition to d is set at 0.116nsec.

Optional Improvement as long as Interference Mitigation (Approach 2): Analog type of SSA- Notch generation by using a spreading code DS-UWB systems X Spreading code Carrier frequency x(t) fc c(t) b(t) Tx model 1 X X p(t) Pulse signal 4.3GHz (EES) c(t)=[-1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1] 4.3GHz (EES) cl(t), c(t)=[-1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 1] X x(t) fc c(t) Tx model 2 X X p(t) X long code cl(t) b(t) Assumption: Chip rate of a long code is the same as bit rate. Narrow in addition to Repetitive (Scrambler) Spreading code Carrier frequency Pulse signal Narrow in addition to Repetitive Example: Example: Note: These notches are diminished by a bi-phase modulation. Optimization of coding rate in addition to spreading factor Original VS-DS-UWB The other combinations FEC Rate=1/2: [53,75] FEC Rate=1/3: [47,53,75] FEC Rate=1/4: [53,67,71,75] > >= Constraint length is fixed to 6 (Have you already optimized the combinations ) Received Power as a Function Of Node Separation Real World DS-UWB Measurements Demonstrate Unique Benefits of UWB Not on a 1/R4 curve – Small dips, no deep fades = Very robust in highly cluttered environments = Lower power in addition to minimized potential as long as interference -30 -27 -24 -21 -18 -15 -12 -9 -6 -3 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 feet dB Measured DS-UWB

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UWB Fading Distributions Are Key 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 PDF – 4 MHz Fading 0 0.2 0.4 Received Energy (dB) PDF – 1.368 GHz Fading 4 MHz MB-OFDM carrier BW fading Large proportion of deep fades cause bit errors 1.368 GHz BW DS-UWB Fading NO deep fades! DS-UWB Has NO Raleigh Fading Many MB-OFDM Tones Suffer Heavy Fading MB-OFDM tones suffer heavy fading MB-OFDM does not coherently process the b in addition to width FEC across tones is used -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10-2 10-1 100 X (dB) P (Received Energy < x) 4 MHz BW 75 MHz BW 1.4 GHz BW Theoretical Rayleigh DS-UWB MB-OFDM 25% 25% of Narrow B in addition to Channels are Faded by 6 dB or more True coherent UWB like DS-UWB yields significant fading statistics advantage MB-OFDM Per as long as mance Loss Due to Fading 110 Mbps Rate 11/32 FEC with 2x Diversity MB-OFDM 1.3 dB Loss 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4 10 -3 SNR (dB) BER AWGN MRC OFDM Simple Diversity Sum OFDM ~1.3 dB with MRC MB-OFDM per as long as mance worsens as data rate increases DS-UWB maintains per as long as mance within 1 dB of optimal with low complexity RAKE 200 Mbps Rate 5/8 FEC with 2x Diversity MB-OFDM 3.5 dB Loss 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 SNR (dB) ~3.5 dB MRC OFDM AWGN 10 SNR (dB) 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 4 MHz BW CM-3 AWGN ~6 dB 480 Mbps Rate 3/4 FEC with No Diversity MB-OFDM 6 dB Loss DS-UWB Takes Full Advantage of UWB Propagation DS-UWB Per as long as mance Excels As Speed Goes Up 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 3/4 FEC No Diversity 11/32 FEC 2x Diversity 5/8 FEC 2x Diversity Mbps Speed Per as long as mance dB MB-OFDM DS-UWB The Faster the Radio, The More DS is Better Per as long as mance Difference is Natural Consequence of Channel Physics DS-UWB Naturally Fits Needs of Multi-Media & H in addition to held Devices DS-UWB Uses RAKE Receiver with Equalizer For Optimum Energy Capture in addition to BER Use of RAKE is flexible – in receiver, not transmitter Short range (CM-1) does not need RAKE - only 4 dB loss from ideal No-Rake DS is less power & outper as long as ms MB-OFDM (by 2 dB at 480 Mbps) Media Server can use 16-finger RAKE in addition to capture all but 1 dB of available energy in CM-3 – Very high per as long as mance Captured Energy (dB) DS-UWB Complexity Takes Advantage Of Propagation DS-UWB Power Excels More & More As Data Rate Goes Up As UWB Gets Faster DS – Gets Simpler MB-OFDM Requires Higher Emissions, More Complexity NTIA Comments on Using Noise to meet FCC 500 MHz BW Requirement NTIA comments specifically on the possibility that manufacturer would intentionally add noise to a signal in order to meet the minimum FCC UBW 500 MHz b in addition to width requirements: “Furthermore, the intentional addition of unnecessary noise to a signal would violate the Commission’s long-st in addition to ing rules that devices be constructed in accordance with good engineering design in addition to manufacturing practice.” And: “It is NTIA’s opinion that a device where noise is intentionally injected into the signal should never be certified by the Commission.” Source: NTIA Comments (UWB FNPRM) filed January 16, 2004 available at http://www.ntia.doc.gov/reports.html FCC Rules Regarding Unnecessary Emissions FCC Rules in 47 CFR Part 15 to which NTIA refers: “§ 15.15 General technical requirements. (a) An intentional or unintentional radiator shall be constructed in accordance with good engineering design in addition to manufacturing practice. Emanations from the device shall be suppressed as much as practicable, but in no case shall the emanations exceed the levels specified in these rules.”

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