Proliferation beyond the “Superpowers” EMU field, British test site Proliferation after the 1963 test ban The China Program The first successful Chinese Bomb

Proliferation beyond the “Superpowers” EMU field, British test site Proliferation after the 1963 test ban The China Program The first successful Chinese Bomb

Proliferation beyond the “Superpowers” EMU field, British test site Proliferation after the 1963 test ban The China Program The first successful Chinese Bomb

Blair, Steve, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Proliferation beyond the “Superpowers” After Soviet Union in 1949, the first successful British test of a pure fission based 10 kT bomb (Totem 1) took place on October 14, 1953 at Emu Field, Australia. 1954 Winston Churchill decided that Britain should go ahead with H-bomb development, that is, to replicate the U.S. achievement. The free fall bomb (Blue Danube) was the first nuclear weapon stockpiled by Britain, in addition to going into service in November 1953 EMU field, British test site Proliferation after the 1963 test ban In 1949 in addition to 1952 France build its first reactors which could be used For 239Pu breading. Uranium ores were discovered in France in 1951. French nuclear weapon program began in earnest in 1956, after the humiliating defeat at Dien Bien Phu in addition to loss of French Indochina. Lack of US support during Suez crisis, France decided to develop its Independent military in addition to nuclear as long as ce structure (Force de Frappe). The first French nuclear test, code-named Gerboise Bleue (60-70KT), was detonated at on February 13 1960 at Reggane in Algeria. After Algeria gained independence in 1966, the french testing program moved to the Mururoa in addition to Fangataufa Atolls in the South Pacific.

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The China Program China began developing nuclear weapons in the late 1950s with Soviet Union assistance. Of the assistance provided, most significant to China’s future nuclear capability were an experimental nuclear reactor, facilities as long as processing uranium, a cyclotron, in addition to some equipment as long as a gaseous diffusions plant. When Sino-Soviet relations cooled in the late 1950s in addition to early 1960s, the Soviet Union withheld plans in addition to data as long as an atomic bomb, abrogated the agreement on transferring defense technology, in addition to began the withdrawal of Soviet advisers in 1960. Despite the termination of Soviet assistance, China committed itself to continue nuclear weapons development to break “the superpowers’ monopoly on nuclear weapons,” to ensure Chinese security against the Soviet in addition to United States threats, in addition to to increase Chinese prestige in addition to power internationally. China made remarkable progress in the 1960s in developing nuclear weapons. In a thirty-two-month period, China successfully exploded its first atomic bomb (October 16, 1964) at Lop Nor (Takla Makan desert), launched its first nuclear missile (October 25, 1966), in addition to detonated its first hydrogen bomb (June 14, 1967). The first successful Chinese Bomb Soviet in addition to Chinese test sites

The Lop Nor Tests The Lop Nor Nuclear Test Range four days after the test of “596”. Image from a KH-4 Corona intelligence satellite. “596“ test 22 kT Tarim Basin in Takla Makan Desert About 3000 ft Basin in Takla Makan was location of extensive lake during last ice age. lake evaporated within the subsequent 10000 years. Early discoverers, Marco Polo, reported on lake existence, 19th century travelers, Sven Hedin could only confirm a saline lake in the desert. Lop Nor in Takla Makan Lop Nor, on the east edge of the Tarim Basin in China’s Zinjiang Province. Structure was created by water level changes within the as long as mer lake. Concentric rings as long as med as water evaporated from the lake in addition to left mineral deposits, including highly reflective salts, along the new shoreline. The as long as mer lake now resembles a giant ear. Visible are a small plateau ~ 3000 ft above the terrain south of Lop Nor in addition to extensive s in addition to dunes in addition to s in addition to ridges to the southeast.

Existence of Tarim basin lake civilization confirmed by 2001 Chinese expedition Chinese nuclear sites today Smaller Nations “under threat” South Africa’s quest as long as a nuclear deterrent began with research as long as peaceful nuclear explosives (PNEs) in addition to reactor development in 1969. Pretoria initially would not confirm it was developing, or possessed, nuclear weapons, but it had large natural deposits of uranium, uranium enrichment facilities in addition to the necessary technological infrastructure. These projects were undertaken with some cooperation from Israel. Initial tests in 1975 stopped by USSR in addition to US cooperation but a flash over the Indian Ocean was detected by an US satellite in September 1979 in addition to was suspected of being a nuclear test. The Suez crisis triggered the Israel nuclear weapons program. Already in 1953, Israeli Prime Minister Ben-Gurion had ordered the development of nuclear weapons. Six weeks be as long as e the Suez Canal operation in 1956, Israel approached France as long as assistance in building a nuclear reactor Dimona . Reactor was completed in 1964 in addition to declared to be as long as peaceful purposes. The United States government did not encourage or approve of the Israeli nuclear program, it also did nothing to stop it. In early 1968, the CIA issued a report concluding that Israel had started production of nuclear weapons.

The “secret” Israel program 1971 US spy plane Conclusion that by 1996 Israel had produced 330-580 kg of plutonium as long as a stockpile of 80-150 weapons Dimona reactor plant with Machon 1-10 239Pu & 235U enrichment facilities The “Mordechai Vanunu” Case Convicted in secret trial in 1988 to 18 years imprisonment. Released in 2004, but frequently rearrested in 2004 in addition to 2005 Prevented to emigrate from Israel in the name of National Security October 5, 1986 Most in as long as mation by Mordechai Vanunu who managed to take in addition to publicize 60 photos, later kidnapped by Mossad in addition to brought to Israel as long as trial. Pu Bomb Model Core: 239Pu (with 235U) Tamper: 238U as long as 239Pu enhancement 6LiD component as long as fusion enhancement Bomb assembly model Glove Box photo at Dimona facility

India & Pakistan Deep resentment in addition to hate since 1948 independence in addition to separation of the Indian Subcontinent into a Muslim in addition to a Hindu dominated part. -1956: India completes negotiations to build 40 megawatt research reactor. United States supplies heavy water, used to control nuclear fission. -1958: India begins designing in addition to acquiring equipment as long as its Trombay plutonium reprocessing facility -1959: U.S. trains Indian scientists in reprocessing in addition to h in addition to ling plutonium. -1963: Two 210-megawatt boiling-water reactors are ordered as long as the Tarapur Atomic Power Station from General Electric. United States in addition to India agree plutonium from India’s reactors will not be used as long as research as long as atomic weapons or as long as military purposes. -1964: First plutonium reprocessing plant operates at Trombay. -1968: Non-Proliferation Treaty completed. India refuses to sign. -1969: France agrees to help India develop breeder reactors. -1974: India tests a device of up to 15 kilotons in addition to calls the test a “peaceful nuclear explosion”. The United States allows continued supply of nuclear fuel, but later cuts it off. -1998: India conducts 5 underground nuclear tests, declares itself a nuclear state 1-30 kT underground test series SHAKTI Several sub-kiloton test explosions 2005 Nuclear Research in addition to Test Sites in India

Pakistan -1972: After third war with India, Pakistan decides to start nuclear weapons program to match India’s developing capability. Canada supplies reactor as long as the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, heavy water in addition to heavy-water production facility. -1974: Western suppliers embargo nuclear exports to Pakistan after India’s first test of a nuclear device. -1976: Canada stops supplying nuclear fuel as long as Karachi. -1977: United States halts economic aid over Pakistan’s nuclear-weapons program. -1978: France cancels deal to supply plutonium reprocessing plant at Chasma. -1983: China reportedly supplies Pakistan with bomb design. -1987: Pakistan acquires tritium purification & production facility from West Germany. -1989: A 27-kilowatt research reactor is built with Chinese help. -1990: Fearing new war with India, Pakistan makes cores as long as several nuclear weapons. -1991: Pakistan puts ceiling on size of its weapons-grade uranium stockpile. Agreement with India, prohibiting the attack of each other’s nuclear installations. -1993: Claims of 14,000 uranium-enrichment centrifuges installed in Pakistan. German customs officials seize about 1,000 gas centrifuges bound as long as Pakistan. -1996: Pakistan buys 5,000 ring magnets from China to be used in gas centrifuges as long as uranium enrichment. -1998: Reacting to fresh nuclear testing by India, Pakistan conducts its own atomic explosions. 2005 Nuclear Research in addition to Test Sites in Pakistan Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, proclaimed as the “Father of Pakistan’s atomic bomb,” st in addition to s in the access tunnel inside the Chagai Hills nuclear test site be as long as e Pakistan’s 28 May 1998 underground nuclear test. Nuclear Stockpiles Stockpile on nuclear warhead as a function of year. US in addition to Russia still maintain an nuclear arsenal that is one of magnitude (10 times) larger than the accumulated arsenal of the smaller nuclear powers.

Present & future c in addition to idates North Korea feels threatened by US Central Asia as long as mer Soviet Republic’s Weapon stockpile Emerging interest of South Korea in addition to Japan Iran, feels threatened by Israel in addition to USA, is also uneasy about Pakistan’s nuclear weapons capability.

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