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Delaware State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, PROLONGED LABOUR Hassan, MD PROLONGED FIRST STAGE OF LABOUR Diagnosis Deviation of line of cervical dilatation so that the right of the alert line in addition to reaches the action line. Causes ÿ 1.ÿÿ Powers i.e. uterine contractions 2.ÿÿ Passenger i.e. the fetus 3.ÿÿ Passage i.e. the pelvis. Prolonged Latent Phase Diagnosis Diagnosis of labor has been made but progressive cervical change occurs but at an inordinately slow pace Causes Unripe cervix, false labor, sedation, uterine inertia Complications Maternal fatigue/exhaustion due so that lack of sleep, Maternal dehydration that can lead so that a combination of contractures in addition to contractions

 Franklin, Owen Delaware State University


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Prolonged Active Phase Causes Power: Ineffective contractions Either they space out or have less strength so that get the effect needed. Causes – maternal fatigue, pain (catacholamine response), overmedication either in dose or timing. Passenger: Big baby, malposition/presentation Passage: contracted pelvis PROLONGED FIRST STAGE OF LABOUR Active management of labour Indications Accurate diagnosis of Labour Primigravidae Singleton fetus Vertex presentation No evidence of fetal distress PROLONGED SECOND STAGE OF LABOR Diagnosis When the time exceeds 2 hours Causes: Descent abnormalities Fetal position/malpresentation/size Ineffective contractions Ineffective maternal effort Medications/anesthesia

PROLONGED SECOND STAGE OF LABOUR Management Depends on the cause. Poor uterine activity may be corrected by augmentation. Poor maternal effort or exhaustion – assisted delivery (as long as all the pre-requisites have been fulfilled). PROLONGED THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR Diagnosis When exceeds 30 minutes Causes Uterine atony Big uterus due so that poly, multiple pregnancy, myoma, following prolonged labour, traumatic delivery, excessive analgesia, anaesthesia Uterine abnormalities ? uterus & cervix PROLONGED THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR Causes 3. Placental abnormalities Problems of adhesion: placenta praevia, cornual implantation, accreta, pancreta etc 4. Mismanagement of 3rd stage Massage of uterus before delivery of the placenta may lead so that tetanic contractions, Admin of ergot preparations too early or too late sustained uterine contration ?traps the placenta

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Occipito-Posterior Positions in addition to Deep Transverse Arrest Occiput usually lateral when head engages 80% will rotate so that anterior during labour POPP Causes delay in lst stage. More common in primigravidae. Treatment if inefficient uterus action may result in rotation so that anterior. Occipito Posterior Position Causes Anteriorly situated placenta Anthropoid pelvis Flat Sacrum Pundulous abdomen Chance R.O.P. three times as common as L.O.P. Occipito Posterior Position Management 12% will deliver spontaneously O.P. Transverse arrest may require operative intervention Lack of progress may warrant c-section Vacuum preferable so that Forceps (?)

Complications of prolonged obstructed labour Maternal Infection ? sepsis, peritonitis, wound infection, Fistula Thrombo-embolism Ruptured Uterus PPH Broad Ligament Haematoma Shock Paralytic ileus Burst abdomen Fetal complications Cord Prolapse Birth Asphyxia Meconium Aspiration Syndrome Convulsion Jaundice Neonatal Sepsis/Septicemia Diarrhoea Birth injury An overview on pathophysiology of prolonged obstructed labour Maternal exhaustion in addition to distress Hypovolaemia Electrolyte imbalance Thrombo-embolism Other cpxs Ruptured Uterus PPH Obstetric fistulae Infection, paralytic ileus

Management of prolonged obstructed labour Resuscitation: IV fluids RL or NS 1-2 Lfast, use large bore cannula Catheterization ? continuous bladder drainage Blood gpg & x-matching Antibiotics: i.v Ampicilin & metronidazole, ceftriaxone Deliver the mother by CS PRECIPITOUS LABOR Cervical dilatation rate >5cm/hr dilatation in nullips; >10cm/hr in multips Complications of precipitous labor Trauma so that birth canal; Fetal distress; in addition to Postpartum hemorrhage

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