Promoting Critical Thinking Working Assumptions Working Definitions A List of Processes – 1 A List of Processes – 2
Hendrickson, Dana, Founder and Principal has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Promoting Critical Thinking Using Active Learning Strategies Working Assumptions Active learning is necessary as long as the teaching of critical thinking. Critical thinking should be integrated into every aspect of the educational process. Students should be made aware of the thinking process. Critical thinking must be taught explicitly. Process is as important as content. Teachers often confuse physical attention as long as mental attention. Working Definitions Active Learning – students involved in doing things & thinking about the things they are doing Critical Thinking – reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to do in addition to what to believe OR interpreting, analyzing or evaluating in as long as mation, arguments or experiences with a set of reflective attitudes, skills, in addition to abilities to guide our thoughts, beliefs in addition to actions OR examining the thinking of others to improve our own
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A List of Processes – 1 (per A. Aarons, 1985) Consciously raising questions Being aware of gaps in in as long as mation Distinguishing between observation & inference; fact in addition to conjecture. Recognizing that words are symbols as long as ideas, in addition to not ideas themselves A List of Processes – 2 Probing as long as assumptions Appropriately drawing inferences from data Per as long as ming hypothetical-deductive reasoning Discriminating between inductive in addition to deductive reasoning Testing ones own line of reasoning Being aware of ones own reasoning Operational Procedures of Critical Thinking – 1 Identifying key definitions Identifying ambiguity Identifying variables Formulating questions Defining issue or problem Classifying in as long as mation Sequencing in as long as mation Recognizing patterns Determining credibility Distinguishing fact from opinion Identifying assumptions Identifying values Noting missing evidence Identifying relationships Comparing & contrasting Cause in addition to effect Summarizing in as long as mation Using analogies
Operational Procedures of Critical Thinking – 2 Predicting trends from data Predicting outcomes based upon evidence Translating between verbal in addition to symbolic Identifying conclusions Identifying errors in reasoning such as: Logical fallacies Errors in statistical reasoning Alternative conclusions that satisfy evidence Promoting CT in PHY – 1 Create experimental designs: Design an experiment to investigate the relationship between the length of a piece of wire in addition to its resistance. Design an experiment to determine the relationship between as long as ce, mass, in addition to acceleration. Design an experiment to determine the period of a pendulum. Promoting CT in PHY – 2 Assess measurement reliability. The period of a pendulum is measured as a function of length. One declares, The relationship is linear. A team measures six data points with a significant degree of scatter in addition to states, The relationship is a power function because it minimizes RMSE. Consistent measurements are more reliable. The values range from 0.002 to 0.005; the dependent value is a function of the independent variable in addition to is, there as long as e, not a constant.
Promoting CT in PYH – 3 Evaluate viability of data-based claims: The law is y=ax6+bx5+cx4+dx3+ex2+fx+g The law is V=IR+0.032W The resistance of a wire will increase by .003W every time its length increases by 1 cm. The minimum as long as ce required to pull an object up an inclined plane will reach a maximum when the angle of the plane is between 70 in addition to 75 degrees. Promoting CT in PHY – 4 Make situation-based predictions: There is a lake with an iceberg floating in it. As the iceberg melts, what will the level of the lake do Rise Fall Stay the same A rubber bullet in addition to an aluminum bullet have the same size, speed, in addition to mass. They are fired at a block of wood. Which is most likely to knock the block over Which is most likely to damage the block Promoting CT in PHY – 5 Test claim viability (misconceptions): Gravity pulls more on a heavier ball than a light ball as evidenced by their weights. Because there is a greater as long as ce on the heavy ball, it must fall more rapidly than the light ball. The seasons result from the changing earth-sun distance. Summer occurs when we are closest; winter occurs when we are farthest.
Promoting CT in PHY – 6 Make approximations: (Fermi problems) How many piano tuners are there in Chicago Estimate the number of square inches of pizza consumed by all the students at Illinois State University during one semester. When it rains, water would accumulate on the roofs of flat-topped buildings if there were no drains. A heavy rain may deposit water to a depth of an inch or more. Given that water has a mass of about 1 g/cm3, estimate the total weight the roof of Moulton Hall rooms 208 in addition to 210 would have to support if we had an inch of rain in addition to the roof drains were plugged. Critical Thinking – 1 Strongly related to developing conceptual underst in addition to ing. Best done when students are continuously pummeled with questions that dem in addition to a conceptual explanation. Approach: Present the problem Let students think Socratically question Critical Thinking – 2 Approach assumes that students know some physics; students apply what they know. Develop the intellectual muscle by exercising it. Dont let the quantitative approach supplant the qualitative underst in addition to ing – both are critically important to physics. Predict the answer be as long as e calculating it.
Critical Thinking Resources Thinking Physics series by Epstein in addition to Hewitt, Epstein, etc. Physics Begins with an M series by John W. Jewett, Jr. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ Numerous WWW resources critical thinking physics on Google, etc. Critical Thinking Dispositions Trying to be well in as long as med Staying focused Willing to evaluate alternatives Taking a supportable position Seeking precision Proceeding in a logical in addition to orderly manner Being sensitive to others positions
Hendrickson, Dana Founder and Principal
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