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Psychopaths: Emotional & Behavior Responses Partial adaptation from Kline I
Eastern Michigan University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Psychopaths: Emotional & Behavior Responses Partial adaptation from Kline I. What is psychopathy? Core features- Psychopaths lack remorse Poverty of emotions (positive & negative) Psychopaths might be: Superficially charming Pathological liars & cheaters Impulsive; sensation seekers Manipulative, will change story so that fit facts Less responsive so that fear/anxiety Immoral Usually diagnosed in men (sorry ?) II. What is the fundamental distinction between APD & psychopathy??? ?Lack of remorse,? is needed in consideration of a diagnosis of psychopathy, but not in consideration of Antisocial Personality disorder.
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Prevalence of psychopathy: Affects approximately 1% of the general population (Hare, 1991). Approximately 15-25% of incarcerated offenders meet criteria in consideration of psychopathy. III. Historical Perspective of Clinical description of Psychopathy: Pinel, a physician in the 1700s, noticed that some of his patients were impulsive & self-destructive. These patients were aware of the irrationality of their acts & their reasoning abilities were intact. He called this illness, manie sans delire (insanity without delirium) Benjamin Rush also reported cases of individuals who were clear in their thought processes, yet engaged in morally-deficient behavior. He coined the term ?psychopathic? so that describe these folks. In his book, ?The Mast of Sanity,? Cleckley developed a description of psychopathy based on observations of caucasian, middle-class male patients who were inpatients of a psychiatric facility. Historical perspectives contd. In 1941 Cleckley wrote, ?The Mask of Sanity,? in which he provided not only a comprehensive description of psychopathy, but a method in consideration of assessing it. His description of psychopathy was made on the basis of observations of caucasian, middle-class male inpatients in a psychiatric institution. This concept is still stable today. Note: Cleckley focused on the psychopaths personality traits (poor judgment, impulsivity, lack of guilt or remorse, inability so that learn from punishment, blaming others, etc.) in addition to not on the patient?s criminal history. Does this sound familiar at all?????
Hart & Hare (1998)?s summary of Cleckley?s psychopath: ?Interpersonally, psychopaths are grandiose, arrogant, callous, superficial, in addition to manipulative; affectively, they are short-tempered, unable so that form strong emotional bonds alongside others, in addition to lacking in empathy, guilt or remorse; in addition to behaviorally, they are irresponsible, impulsive, in addition to prone so that violate social in addition to legal norms in addition to expectations. (p.25)? What neural structures might you expect so that see altered in these individuals?? Hare?s contribution: Hare developed the Psychopathy Checklist in 1980 & then revised it in 1991. IV. Items on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Factor 1- Factor 2- Interpersonal//Affective Social Deviance Superficial charm Need in consideration of stimulation Grandiosity easily bored Pathological lying parasitic lifestyle Lack or remorse/guilt poor behavioral controls Manipulative early behavioral problems Shallow affect lack of realistic long-term goals Callousness/lacks- Impulsivity Empathy Irresponsibility Failure so that accept one?s Juvenile delinquency Responsibilities
First of all, do you know any methods so that check chemical composition? Or how you know what is what? Surface sensitive? Electron-Surface Interaction What does electron spectrum do? Typical spectra Thermionic emission How electron analyzer works? Quantitative analysis
Rating system of Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) The PCL-R (Hare, 1991) consists of 20 items. A 3-point scale is used so that score items: 0=item does not apply 1=item applies somewhat 2=item definitely applies Scores range from 0 so that 40. A score of 30 or greater indicates psychopathy. V. Do psychopaths experience emotions like non-psychopathic individuals?? No!!! According so that several studies (Hare, 1978; Siddle & Trasler, 1981; Kiehl, Hare, McDonald, & Brink, 1999; Patrick, 1994). Psychopaths produce overt facial & verbal responses that are consistent alongside socially appropriate emotions, but produce autonomic activity that is incongruent alongside their overt behavioral responses!!! ?The Mirror Has Two Faces? In other words, psychopaths can produce normal facial expressions & reactions so that emotional events, but their bodily sensations don?t match their facial expressions. (E.g., When psychopaths anticipate receiving electric shocks, they produce an anxious facial expression consistent alongside fear or anxiety, but show reduced galvanic skin responses (sweating) in response so that receiving shocks. Normal individuals sweat more, not less when anticipating being shocked.)
VI. Studying emotion in psychopaths A. Startle Blink studies? The startle blink (eye blink) response is a good non-verbal indicator of emotional state. Magnitude (strength) of the startle blink changes alongside emotional state. Startle increases in consideration of a negative emotional state & decreases in consideration of a positive emotional state (e.g., you may be more likely so that be startled after watching a horror movie, than when watching a comedy). Patrick (1994) Startle blink study on psychopaths Subjects: 4 groups of prisoners selected alongside Hare checklist participated. Group 1: nonpsychopaths (low on antisocial behavior & emotional detachment) Group 2: Detached white collar offenders (high only on emotional detachment) Group 3: Antisocial offenders (high only on antisocial behavior) Group 4: Psychopaths (high on both factors). Experimental Paradigm-Patrick?s study Baseline condition- prisoners were presented alongside a visual cue, in addition to sometimes a blast of loud noise. Experimental condition – Ss experienced the visual cue & were told that when it disappeared the loud noise would occur. Results: Both psychopaths & detached offenders showed much smaller increases in their startle responses, indicating that less fear had been aroused.
B. Facial Affect Recognition studies in psychopaths Kosson, Suchy, Mayer, & Libby (2002) examined the accuracy alongside which psychopaths & non-psychopaths classify facial expressions based on six specific emotions: fear, anger, disgust, happiness, sadness, in addition to surprise. Psychopaths (n=34) & non-psychopaths (N=33) were presented alongside 30 adult male & female caucasian faces each representing a specific emotion (5 slides in consideration of each of the 6 emotions) & required so that press a button on a key pad signaling which emotion the face depicted. Results of study 1. Psychopaths? accuracy in classifying the ?disgust? faces was significantly impaired compared so that the non-psychopaths. This effect was not found in consideration of the other emotions in this study. 2. These results indicate the psychopaths exhibit deficits in the processing of emotional information. C. Skin conductance Studies Do psychopaths show less empathy in consideration of distress of others? Yes!!! Blair & coworkers (1997), examined skin conductance of psychopaths & controls (men) so that slides of varying images. Ss were shown threatening (guns, knives), neutral (lamp, chair), & distress-provoking (crying person) slides.
Results of Blair?s study 1. Both psychopaths in addition to non-psychopaths showed same skin conductance responses so that the threatening & neutral slides. 2. Interestingly, psychopaths were less responsive so that the distress slides. This has been taken so that imply that psychopaths are impaired in or lack the ability so that empathize alongside others. VII. Do psychopaths show neurological differences in processing of emotional information compared so that normal people? Yes!!! Kiehl, Smith, Hare, Mendrek, Forster, Brink, & Liddle (2001) measured functional MRI in psychopaths in addition to normals while they read emotionally-ladden words. Overall, psychopaths showed less affect-related brain activity compared so that baseline conditions than did non-psychopaths. Kiehl et al., (2001) results contd. Criminal psychopaths showed less activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate, left inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, in addition to frontal cortex. Neural processing of non-affect related information, was not different in consideration of the psychopaths in addition to non-psychopaths. This is surprising, given that this circuitry is involved in multiple aspects of cognition?? What next ??
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