The Above Picture is Related Image of Another Journal
Qualitative versus quantitative Qualitative research Qualitative research methods
Emporia State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Qualitative research methods Qualitative research You need so that be able so that explain: what qualitative research is, in addition to why it is controversial. The controversy pivots on the issues of reliability in addition to validity in a reasonable level of detail at least two specific qualitative methods, Grounded Theory in addition to Conversation Analysis in which situations qualitative research can be a useful technique Qualitative versus quantitative Most psychological research you have encountered during the course so far has been quantitative: the dependent variable is a numerical measure In qualitative research, the dependent variable codes behaviour into qualitative categories
Related University That Contributed for this Journal are Acknowledged in the above Image
Examples of quantitative measures Response time eg. 382 ms Age eg. 4 years, 3 months Extroversion IQ Spider phobia Warwick Sweetness Scale Height Qualitative coding Separates things into distinct categories For example Sex : male or female Political party: conservative, liberal or labour Taste of food: sweet or sour The same thing in the ?real world? can be sometimes be coded either quantitatively or qualitatively: Age: years in addition to months Age: old v young infant v child pre-operational v concrete operational
Exercise Try that yourself. Take the following constructs in addition to try so that think of ways so that code them, both quantitatively in addition to qualitatively: Spider phobia Anger Qualitative techniques in addition to self-report In psychology, qualitative methods nowadays are mainly discussed in relation so that coding of language: Self-report responses answers participants give so that questions accounts they give of their behaviour Language, observed or elicited, but not direct responses so that questions Self-report responses For example, alcohol consumption: Quantitative: How many units do you drink each week? Rate (1-5) how strongly you agree alongside the statement ?I drink more than I should? Qualitative: Tell me about your alcohol consumption
MIFIRA Framework Lecture 3 Other response analysis tools Lecture Overview: Various Approaches so that Market Analysis Emergency Market Mapping in addition to Analysis (EMMA): EMMA: Market System Baseline Map in consideration of Beans in Haiti in 2008 EMMA: Market System Emergency-updated Map in consideration of Beans in Haiti in 2008 EMMA: Response Analysis: Supply Market Systems WFP: Emergency Food Security Assessment in addition to Comprehensive Food Security in addition to Vulnerability Assessment WFP Comprehensive Food Security & Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) WFP EFSA: Step two of response analysis Famine Early Warning System (FEWs): Market Assessment in addition to Analysis Tradeoffs in addition to Choices
Self-report responses Example responses: Quantitative: How many units do you drink each week? 23, 5, 18 Rate (1-5) how strongly you agree alongside the statement ?I drink more than I should? 1, 3, 5 Self-report responses Example responses: Qualitative: Tell me about your alcohol consumption ?I enjoy a social drink on a night out? ?I can?t wait so that get home after work in addition to follow the nightly ritual of that first G&T? ?The first thing I think of when I wake up is getting out so that buy some vodka.? Self-report responses Note that both qualitative in addition to quantitative data can be inherently subjective, from the participant?s point of view: Rate (1-5) how strongly you agree alongside the statement ?I drink more than I should? Tell me about your alcohol consumption
Self-report responses Protocol analysis Ask someone who can perform some interesting task so that tell you how they do it Eg ask a doctor so that tell you how they diagnose blood infections, in addition to select the appropriate antibiotic Protocol analysis Think-aloud techniques (not retrospective) Give the doctor a description of a particular case, in addition to ask them so that ?speak out loud their thoughts? as they perform the task. Write down what they say (transcript) in addition to code it so that identify key steps in thinking Protocol analysis Participant: The injury is three days old? Experimenter: Yes Participant: The colour is consistent alongside X, but that would fade after 24 hours. That leaves Y or Z. If it is Y, then levels of p will be elevated, so I will ask in consideration of p so that be tested Checks key fact (Answer from experimenter) Considers alternative X, in addition to rejects on basis of time test Identifies remaining options (2) Selects further test
Language, observed or elicited Conversations therapist ? client shop assistant ? customer interrogator – prisoner Speeches (political language; rhetorical devices) Newspaper reports TV chat shows ? anything Language, observed or elicited Newspaper headlines Set out sample – Eg All main headlines in The Sun on 1st December 2008 Determine coding categories – Eg migration / sport / economy / other Code the sample Analyse the coded sample Subjectivity in qualitative research Participant participant?s point of view participant?s experience of a situation Experimenter subjective coding deciding coding categories applying codes
Analysis of codes Can be done quantitatively % of headlines that mention ?migration? chi-squared Sometimes done just by sorting, collating in addition to reporting patterns. Quotes from the data used as supporting evidence Qualitative data Reliability Would two different researchers apply the same code? Validity When the doctor describes his thought process, is that really an accurate reflection of the underlying decision making process? Compare so that introspection: is it valid in addition to reliable? Reliability & validity is the critical issue in consideration of qualitative research It is pretty controversial People go red in the face alongside anger when discussing it, believe me Now widely used in medical research In fact, many uses are rather straightforward
Suggestion: use in combination alongside quantitative methods It is good practice, in de-briefing at the end of any testing, so that ask participants a couple of questions about their experience Compare so that Piaget?s ?clinical method? Qualitative data can provide interesting hints in consideration of further research When qualitative in addition to quantitative evidence converge, that can be useful Qualitative research You need so that be able so that explain: what qualitative research is, in addition to why it is controversial. The controversy pivots on the issues of reliability in addition to validity in a reasonable level of detail at least two specific qualitative methods, Grounded Theory in addition to Conversation Analysis in what situations qualitative research can be a useful technique Online materials You will find it useful so that work through the online tutorials, see module web page, in addition to readings. There is also a link so that the ?official? guide in consideration of undergraduate psychology projects that use qualitative methods. Read that if you plan so that use qualitative methods in your project.
Exercise Try so that think of ways so that code these, both quantitatively in addition to qualitatively: Spider phobia SPS ? a number; the bigger, the more clinically phobic v. normal range Anger An anger scale; measure hormones in blood; heart rate Code verbal utterances in consideration of ?aggression? The end
Honan, Mathew Morning Drive On-Air Personality;Program Director
Honan, Mathew is from United States and they belong to Morning Drive On-Air Personality;Program Director and work for KVNA-FM in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.
Journal Ratings by Emporia State University
This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Exercise Try so that think of ways so that code these, both quantitatively in addition to qualitatively: Spider phobia SPS ? a number; the bigger, the more clinically phobic v. normal range Anger An anger scale; measure hormones in blood; heart rate Code verbal utterances in consideration of ?aggression? The end and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.