Quantitative Chemical Analysis In experimental data, the first uncertain figure is the last significant figure. significant figure: The number of significant digits in a quantity is the minimum number of digits needed to express the quantity in scientific notation

Quantitative Chemical Analysis In experimental data, the first uncertain figure is the last significant figure. significant figure: The number of significant digits in a quantity is the minimum number of digits needed to express the quantity in scientific notation www.phwiki.com

Quantitative Chemical Analysis In experimental data, the first uncertain figure is the last significant figure. significant figure: The number of significant digits in a quantity is the minimum number of digits needed to express the quantity in scientific notation

Jacks, Richard, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Quantitative Chemical Analysis Seventh Edition Chapter 3 Experimental Error Copyright © 2007 by W. H. Freeman in addition to Company Daniel C. Harris a cubic decimeter of water at its point of maximum density, 3.984 °C, has a mass that is 25.05 parts per million less than the kilogram. Cleaning the prototypes removes between 5 in addition to 60 µg of contamination short-term instability of about 30 µg over a period of about a month in its after-cleaned mass

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R in addition to om error Systematic error

0.234 58.3 In experimental data, the first uncertain figure is the last significant figure. 0.234 58.3

significant figure: The number of significant digits in a quantity is the minimum number of digits needed to express the quantity in scientific notation Adding in addition to subtracting with sig figs: Keep least sig figs beyond the decimal point 121.795

Adding in addition to subtracting with sig figs: Keep least sig figs beyond the decimal point WATCH OUT: SAME POWERS OF 10! Multiplying in addition to dividing with sig figs: Keep least sig figs.

logarithms with sig figs: sig figs. in mantissa = sig figs in number logarithms with sig figs: sig figs. in mantissa = sig figs in number log(3.39 x 102) = log(3.39) + log (102) = 0.530 + 2 = 2.530 log(3.39 x 10-5) = log(3.39) + log (10-5) = 0.530 – 5 = -4.470 NB 1 sig fig!

Propagation of Uncertainty from R in addition to om Error Propagation of Uncertainty from R in addition to om Error Propagation of Uncertainty from R in addition to om Error This is like adding systematic errors

Propagation of Uncertainty from R in addition to om Error Propagation of Uncertainty from R in addition to om Error Propagation of Uncertainty from R in addition to om Error

Jacks, Richard NBC 13 News at 8 AM Saturday - WVTM-TV Meteorologist www.phwiki.com

The real rule: The first uncertain figure is the last significant figure. TIP: In our calculations, we retain extra insignificant digits in addition to round off only at the end.

For systematic uncertainty, we add the uncertainties of each term in a sum or difference. 0.71 1.18 Vernier scale

Jacks, Richard Meteorologist

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