Quaternary Environments Marine Sediments in addition to Corals Marine Environments Definitions CLIMAP SPECMAP
Pickering, Aaron, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Quaternary Environments Marine Sediments in addition to Corals Marine Environments Cover more than 70% of the Earths surface Between 6-11 billion metric tons of sediment accumulate in the ocean basins annually Definitions Planktic Passively floating organisms living near the surface (0-200m depth) Benthic Bottom-dwelling organisms Test Protective covering
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CLIMAP The CLIMAP Research Group Climate: Long-range Investigation, Mapping, in addition to prediction (CLIMAP) SST in addition to Ocean Surface Conditions From 635 ocean sediment cores Data from faunal counts of diatoms, planktonic as long as aminifera, coccoliths, in addition to radiolaria Stratigraphy – percent fine, coarse, total carbonate, 18O in addition to 13C Geochemistry – percent opal, quartz, in addition to organic carbon SPECMAP Spectral Mapping Project Determining the spectral characteristics of ocean sediment-based paleoclimatic records Establishing a basic timeframe as long as past climatic events Climate times series of the past 400,000 years Based on 17 sediment cores from the Atlantic Ocean. Quantitative data on planktonic species in addition to assemblages which reflect conditions in the surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean 18O, 13C difference (planktic in addition to benthic), in addition to Cd/Ca. Sedimentation in the Ocean
Problems With Marine Sediments Selective dissolution of thin-walled specimens Transportation by ocean currents Removal of easily transported species Introduction of exotics These problems may make some ocean floor sediments unsuitable as long as paleoclimatic reconstructions Regions Usable as long as Foram Studies Important Organisms Foraminifera – Zooplankton Coccolithophores (coccoliths) Unicellular algae Dinoflagellate Organic walled Radiolarians Siliceous zooplankton Silicoflagallates Siliceous Diatoms Siliceous algae
Foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from the North Atlantic Foraminifera Globigerina bulloides from the Labrador Sea Coccolith Dinoflagellate Centric Diatom Pennate Diatom
Paleoclimatic Inferences Oxygen isotopic composition of CaCO3 in as long as am tests Quantitative interpretations of species assemblages in addition to their spatial variations through time Morphological variations in particular species resulting from environmental factors
Benthic 18O record as long as equatorial Atlantic as long as the past 3.2 Mya SST Reconstructions as long as 18,000 yrs BP
Coral Records of Past Climate Reef-Building Massive Corals that have a symbiotic relationship with algae The algae produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis in addition to are there as long as e dependent upon water depth, turbidity, in addition to cloudiness Sectioned in addition to x-rayed High in addition to low density b in addition to s can be distinguished with high-density b in addition to s relating to high SST http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/magazine/stories/mag95.htm Drilling corals as long as paleoclimatic reconstruction.
http://www-ocean.tamu.edu/Quarterdeck/QD6.2/giese.html Growth b in addition to s in Coral. Arrows indicate “stress b in addition to s” revealed in an x-ray of coral skeletal material caused by cold, unfavorable temperatures. Benefits of Coral Analysis Tropical records that fill gaps left by other marine paleorecords Annual resolution Dating is checked with 230Th Possible extent back to 130,000 years BP Problems with Coral Analysis Few records that extend past one century Real extreme events may go unrecorded do to death of the coral colony as long as some period of time
Long Coral Based Records of Past Climate
Pickering, Aaron Meteorologist
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