Reflections on 50 years in R&D Professor Phil Ruffles March 8th 2011 RB211 in addition to T

Reflections on 50 years in R&D Professor Phil Ruffles March 8th 2011 RB211 in addition to T www.phwiki.com

Reflections on 50 years in R&D Professor Phil Ruffles March 8th 2011 RB211 in addition to T

Eagle, Shanti, Contributor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Reflections on 50 years in R&D Professor Phil Ruffles March 8th 2011 RB211 in addition to Trent Family Variants -9 Engines sold in addition to on Order RB211 -3760,Trent -2060 sold,2600 on order Aircraft RB211-L1011,B747,B757, B 767 Tu 204 Trent – A 330 A340 A350 A 380 B777 B787 71 Trent Operators Revenue 40bn to date,35bn New engines on order. Aftermarket is additional The Launch – 29 March 1968

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RB211 Advantages of three shafts Picture in addition to Chart which summarises the benefits of 3 shaft engines RB211-06 Designed as long as market leadership through technology 33,260 lb thrust in 1966 -06 was unable to meet increasing dem in addition to as long as thrust during aircraft development Subsequently redesigned as long as 40,600lb from April to October in 1968 to become -22C Uprated to 42,000lb (-22B) to compensate as long as weight growth RB211-Scale of advance Per as long as mance advance Thrust +95% Cruise sfc -21% Noise -19PNdB Turbine entry temp. +150ºC Pressure ratio 17 > 25 Airflow x 3.7

RB211-22 The Hyfil fan The Hyfil fan offered a 300 lb weight in addition to two per cent fuel consumption benefit High risk of Hyfil was recognised so a Titanium alloy alternative was designed in parallel as early as 1969 Hyfil blades were experiencing integrity problems replacement with Titanium blades allowed continued testing The Hyfil blade was replaced by the Titanium blade in Spring 1970 RB211-The review of early milestones RB211-06 detailed design commenced at 33260lbs thrust RB211-22 order received at 40600lbs thrust First run of -06 engine First run of -22 engine First flight of RB211 in VC10 First flight of L1011 Type approval obtained as long as 42000lbs at ISA+3, 40600lbs at ISA+15 L1011 obtains type approval – airline service starts Type approval obtained as long as 42000 lbf at ISA+15 (-22B) Mid 1967 Mar 1968 Aug 1968 Jan 1970 Mar 1970 Nov 1970 Feb 1972 Apr 1972 Feb 1973 RB211-06 Realising 40,000lb thrust RB211-06, Engine 5 – Test Report (Jan 1969): Seizure of LP spool during initial attempts to start engine Strip revealed distorted blades, severe foul with seal segments Turbine module from Engine 3 fitted to resume testing After 19hrs 40mins, several Hyfil fan blades were found damaged Hyfil assembly removed in addition to Titanium assembly fitted to resume testing Surge at 36,000 lbf after 21hrs 34mins (day temperature: -7°C) Engine rejected from test due to seized HP spool Strip examination revealed HP turbine blade foul with seal segments Thermal deterioration of the flame tube had also occurred Best per as long as mance to date! RB211-06, Engine 7 (March 1969): Engine achieved 40,000lbf but surged in addition to seized on run-down due to HP turbine blade failure

RB211-06 Realising 40,000lb thrust ‘The Evidence’ ! RB211 Early development problems Rolls-Royce Receivership-February 4th 1971 Engine 10011, fitted with a package of per as long as mance modifications, returned best per as long as mance to date on evening of Feb 3rd 1971 The SFC shortfall was approx 8% with thrust close to 40,000lb This demonstrated the engine’s potential in addition to had a major bearing on the events that followed The receiver allocated 12 development engines compared with the previous 18 – this required a clear focus on priorities Contract with Lockheed was re-negotiated with technical spec eased HP turbine blade was fixed, turbine sealing improved in addition to further per as long as mance improvements made 14 months after bankruptcy the engine entered service at 40,600lbs, 41/2 months late, derated in addition to overweight! 12 months later thrust was fully recovered in addition to SFC target met.

RB211 Early service problems RB211-524 in addition to RB211-535 Thrust – lb x 1000 70 60 50 40 -535E4 -535C -524G/H -524D4-B -524D4 -524C -524B Improved -22B -22B -524B4-B -524G/HT (pkg 3) RB211-22B/-524/-535 in addition to Trent HP turbine blades 1972-75 RB211-22B Extruded blades LP feed, cut back trailing edge Suction in addition to trailing edge cooling HP feed to leading edge Interlock 1545K -1550K 1979 RB211-22B/535C Multi-pass cast DS blade HP feed Extensive film cooling 1660K 1983 RB211 535E4 Second generation multi-pass cast DS blade 1680K 1977 RB211-524 Equiaxed HP feed racetrack 36 NGVs 1660K 1987-96 RB211-524 Strategy 2C-2.5C Modified interlock Multi-pass Single crystal 36 NGVs 1730K-1751K 1995 Trent 800 Multi-pass Single crystal Root damper HPNGV shaping Parallel shroud 40 NGVs 1840K

Rolls-Royce Changing pace of technology 1980-1990 Widespread us of key systems across all components 80’s 90’s Early use of CFD, FEA etc – development of turbine key systems Emergence use of modelling/analysis tools, e.g. TACITUS RB211 535 V2500 RB211 524G/H Rolls-Royce Modelling Capability 1980 to 1986 1981 1985 1986 1982 1984 1983 Date (year) Analysis time Time to influence design 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 8 7 10 V2500 Plan B Benefit from vector processor Disc temperature prediction Disc LCF lifing Analysis of 14 aerofoils at six operating points (Inc OGV in 3D) Impractical or impossible Transient dynamic response Rotor blade vibration analysis Whole engine modelling (FE) Rolls-Royce Computer Simulation Computer Simulation has changed the way Engineering is carried out 1960’s 1st Computers used 1970’s 1st Turbine design system(1976) 1980’s Mechanical Analysis concurrent with design. 1990’s Faster, greater complexity, more iterations Digital Pre-assembly(Trent 800) 2000’s Simulation validation via test then used as long as subsequent certification 2010 Whole engine modelling & Fan Blade-Off simulation

RB211-535, V2500, RB211-524 improvement programmes Attempts at per as long as mance improvement programmes through technology introduction provided mixed successes due to technology management in addition to process difficulties Derwent – The new product introduction process Stage 1 Preliminary Concept Definition Stage 2 Full Concept Definition Stage 3 Product Realisation Stage 4 Production Stage 5 Service Support Stage 1 Exit review Stage 6 Disposal Stage 2 Exit review Critical design review Design verification review Production readiness review In-service review Production process check Audit gates Integrated team in addition to product structure Whole System (Product) Sub-system Sub-system Component Component Component Component Product & Functional structure Chief Design Engineer Team leader of Sub-system Team leader of Sub-system Team leader of Component Etc IPT structure Team leader of Component Team leader of Component Team leader of Component Chief Devt. Engineer Chief Engineer

New Product Planning Full Concept Definition Product Realisation Production Disposal Service Support Facilities People/skills Supply Chain Infrastructure R&T Strategy Planning New Capability Realisation Research in addition to Technology Programme Global Academic Network UNIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY CENTRES Technology Validation Generic Project specific Strategic Research Applied Research Requirements: Airframers Operators Solutions Rolls-Royce Capability Acquisition Rolls-Royce Technology Acquisition Prior to mid 1970’s technology acquisition was determined by functions, largely with a research focus High Temperature Demonstrator Unit 1st run in 1972 Structured Advanced engineering programmes launched in 1976 including Demonstrator engines University Technology Centres launched in 1990 Technology Strategy linked to Corporate in addition to Product strategy from 1995 onwards Technology programmes key to success of Trent Engine family in addition to growth of Company in other sectors Research in addition to technology management Relative to competition: Lead/Neutral/Lag Fuel Cells 3D Compressor Blading High Temp. Demo. Unit Base Titanium Disc Key Pacing Emerging Fuel Cells Technology Categories Maturity Levels

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The Trent Family Fan diameter 97.5 86.5 110 Trent 1000 74,000lb Trent 900 80,000lb Trent 500 56,000lb Trent 700 72,000lb Trent 800 95,000lb RB211-524G/H-T 60,000lb EIS 1996 EIS 2007 EIS 1995 EIS 2002 EIS 2011 2060 engines delivered 2600 orders backlog (December 2009) EIS 2013 Trent XWB 84,000lb Trent 1000 – High technology at low risk Optimized lightweight fan system Active anti icing Soluble core manufacturing of HPT blade Advanced LPT design IP power off-take More electric Accessories in addition to Engine Health Monitoring Developing our Engineering Talent Engineering Directors Fellows Chief Engineers Technical Leadership Project Leadership Recruits Graduate Level Recruits & Apprentices Movement out of Engineering Some External Losses Recruits Technical Managers Specialists Project Managers Associate Fellows

Product Development –Keys to Success Competitive Product Concepts Technology acquired ahead of product development Stage Gate Product introduction process Formal gate reviews Risk assessment in addition to management Integrated Product Teams Robust product requirements Work package management Clearly defined deliverables The best digital tools inc verification Well trained in addition to motivated people

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