Reproductive System Uterine Tube Histology STD STATS
O’Kelley, Kaley, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Reproductive System Human Anatomy Chapter 24 The reproductive system becomes active after puberty. During puberty the reproductive organs mature to create a fertile individual capable of reproducing. The primary sex organs produce the sex cells (egg/sperm) in addition to sex hormones. The accessory sex organs are all the components involved in maintaining the sex cell in addition to assisting in the process of fertilization.
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I. The male reproductive system: This system is simpler than the female reproductive system. A. Scrotum: a sac located outside of the abdominal cavity, made up of a thin layer of smooth in addition to skeletal muscle in addition to skin. It is divided into left in addition to right by a septum to as long as m different compartments as long as the testicles. The scrotum keeps the testicles outside the body so they can be 3 degrees cooler than normal core temperature. The muscles of the scrotum contract to bring the testicles closer to the body in cooler conditions. In warm conditions they relax to allow the skin to stretch in addition to maximize cooling. B. Testes: Oval shape organs made up of thous in addition to s of seminiferous tubules where the sperm is produced. It responds to follicle stimulating hormone that signals sperm production. When the sperm is in its last stages of maturation it moves to the epididymus. 1. Gross anatomy: about 1 x 4 inches, complete surrounded by a fibrous capsule in addition to partially enclosed by a serous membrane that develop when the testes traveled outside the body into the scrotum. The fibrous capsule divides the testicles into wedge-like compartments called lobules that are filled with seminiferous tubules. They are innervated by an abundant about of visceral sensory nerves that make them very sensitive to pain. The high sensitivity serves as long as protection in addition to in sexual arousal. 2. Seminiferous tubules in addition to spermatogenesis: The seminiferous tubules consist of a thick stratified epithelium surrounding a lumen. The epithelium has spermatogenic cells that mature into sperm. At puberty the seminiferous tubules begin to produce about 400 million sperm. the spermatogenic cells are protect by a blood-testis barrier that keep the cells from activating the immune system.
Spermatogenesis: these are the stages involved in sperm as long as mation. Stage 1: as long as mation of spermatocytes: spermatogonia divide by mitosis to produce two daughter cells, one remains in the germ line (to continue regeneration of more spermatogonia) in addition to the other one goes on to become sperm. Stage 2: Meiosis: this is a reduction division that takes a cell through two rounds of division. At the end four genetically distinctive cells (spermatids) are created which will each mature into a sperm. Stage 3: Spermiogenesis: spermatids mature into sperm, the cell develops a long flagella, a mid piece with high mitochondria count, in addition to a head filled with DNA= the nucleus. At the tip of the head lies a sac filled with digestive enzymes called the acromosome (see page 676). Other cells in the testicles per as long as m jobs like assisting the cells to mature in addition to exit the scrotum (referred to as nurse cells), produce male in addition to rogen (like testosterone), in addition to muscular cells that cause tiny contractions to push the sperm out of the testes. When sperm leaves the seminiferous tubules it travels down the efferent tubules towards the epididymis.
C. Reproductive duct system is males: This section discusses the tubules through which sperm travel to exit the body. 1. Epididymis: organ that arches over the posterior lateral side of the testis. If you uncoil the epididymis is can be as long as 6meters or 20 feet! During the twenty days the sperm spend here they complete maturation in addition to gain the ability to swim in addition to fertilize. During ejaculation smooth muscle contracts to send mature sperm to the ductus deferns. 2. Ductus deferens: also known as the vas deference, it runs superior to the testicles, enters the abdominopelvic cavity, runs posterior to the bladder, passes by the seminal vesicle, as long as m the ampulla in addition to ejaculatory duct, in addition to finally leads into the prostatic urethra. 3. Spermatic cords: a tube of fascia holding blood vessels, nerves, in addition to the ductus deference. See page 672 figure 24.2. 4. Urethra: As discussed in the previous chapter the urethra in addition to men carries both sperm in addition to urine. During ejaculation the sphincter muscles close off the bladder so urine is not released into the semen. The urethra is divided into the prostatic urethra (section passing through prostrate gl in addition to ), the membranous urethra (urogenital diaphragm) in addition to the spongy urethra (penile). Urethral gl in addition to s along the spongy urethra secrete a lubricating solution be as long as e ejaculation.
D. Accessory gl in addition to s: These gl in addition to s produce substances that increases the chances of sperm survival once it is outside the body. These secretions in addition to sperm as long as m semen. 1. Seminal vesicles: paired gl in addition to s located posterior to the bladder. During ejaculation smooth muscle contract to help secrete a fluid that contains fructose (sugar), nutrients, prostagladins to stimulate the urethra to contract, substances that suppress the immune system against sperm in females, enzymes the enhance sperm mobility, in addition to enzymes that thicken the ejaculate. 2. Prostate gl in addition to : the size of a chestnut, also has smooth muscle that contracts to assist in the release of prostatic secretion. This is a milky white fluid that has substances to enhance sperm mobility in addition to thicken ejaculate. It is susceptible to tumors in addition to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 3. Bulbourethral gl in addition to s: secrete a mucus substances that lubricates in addition to neutralizes the acid from urine in the male urethra.
E. Penis: Designed to deliver semen into the female reproductive tract. It originates at the root, expends through the body, in addition to ends at the glans penis. Skin around the glans penis is called prepuce (circumcision has contradicting arguments that seem to weigh equally). The penis contains erectile bodies: corpora spongiosum, corpora cavernosa, in addition to others consisting of smooth muscle in addition to connective tissue. It is a spongy network surrounded by a high amount of blood vessels that dilate during arousal in addition to engorge the spongy tissues with blood. The veins that normally drain the penis are pressured shut by the exp in addition to ing spongy tissue. The parasymphatetic branch causes the penis to become erect by stimulating vasodilation. The symphatetic branch cause ejaculation by stimulating contraction of smooth muscle along the reproductive tract. II. The female reproductive system: These organs produce the ova (eggs), sex hormones, in addition to provide an environment as long as internal fertilization in addition to development of the fetus. They undergo changes according to the menstrual cycle. Mammary gl in addition to s are considered part of this system because they nourish the infant.
A. The ovaries: the size of an almond, this paired organ is suspended by mesenteries in addition to ligaments. It is surrounded by a fibrous capsule in addition to can be divided into a cortex in addition to medulla. The cortex houses the developing ova in addition to the medulla holds vascular tissue. The ovary is the site of oogenesis in addition to female sex hormone production. It responds to follicle-stimulating hormone that signals the maturation of an ovum. Typically only one egg is released from an ovary every month, the ovaries alternate in releasing the egg. Every time an egg is released the ovaries become scarred. Hormones that affect the menstrual cycle in addition to female sex organs are also released by the ovaries; estrogen in addition to progesterone. 1. Ovarian cycle: this concerns the changes in the ovary during the menstrual cycle. Females are born with all the potential ova they can produce in a life time. These are called the primordial follicles which consist of a single immature oocyte in addition to a single layer of follicular cells. These cells respond to FSH in addition to being the maturation of an oocyte. Follicular phase: during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle one follicle matures up until the stage when it is able to release an oocyte. Other primordial follicles may get activated but die out along the way. The primordial follicle becomes the primary follicle in addition to continues to develop until it becomes the vesicular follicle. At this point the oocyte is surrounded by follicle cells that the as long as m a fluid filled cavity.
Ovulation (midpoint) phase: at about the mid cycle LH is release to signal the follicle to rupture in addition to release the oocyte from the ovary. The ovum is surrounded by a group of cells that continue to nourish it, they are called the corona radiata. When the egg cell is released it enters the peritoneal cavity but is swept into the fallopian/uterine tubes by fimbriae. Luteal phase: after ovulation in addition to during the last two weeks of the cycle the follicle that held the oocyte becomes the corpus luteum, it is now considered an endocrine gl in addition to that releases progesterone. If no implantation occurs it becomes the corpus albicans (now scar tissue). 2. Oogenesis: while in men spermatogenesis happens in about a month, in females oogenesis takes several years. During fetal development oocytes undergo meiosis I but do not completel it; at this point they are called primary oocytes. At ovulation the primary oocyte completes meiosis I in addition to begins meiosis II which is completed only if fertilization occurs. At the completion of meiosis II the oocyte is called an ovum.
B. Uterine tubes: also called fallopian tubes, they take the oocyte in addition to provide a site as long as fertilization. The tube is lined with ciliated epithelium that gently guides the oocyte towards the uterus. There are also peristaltic waves caused by smooth muscle contraction to aide the movement of the oocyte. There are also non-ciliated cells the nourish the oocyte or embryo on its way to the uterus. sometimes a fertilized egg can implant in a uterine tube in addition to cause a life threatening ectopic pregnancy. Uterine Tube Histology
STD STATS Chlamydia- (bacteria) 3 million new cases per year- 75% have no symptoms. Painful frequent urination, discharge, painful sex, sore throat, fever, nausea Gonorrhea- (bacteria) 700,000 cases/year 50% have no symptoms or the same simptoms as Chlamydia Herpes (virus) 1 million new cases/year, 45 million already have it. 1 in 4 pregnant women have herpes HSV-1 (oral sores) HSV-2 genital HIV- 7,000 women give birth per year. 20% of infected babies develop AIDS in addition to die by age 4 HPV- 75% of the reproductive population is infected ( 3 in 4 people) Syphilis- 32,000 new cases/year. A pailess sore is followed by a rash, followed by rough copper penny spots on the palm in addition to bottom of feet Trichomoniasis- a bacteria that affects 5 million women/year. Foul smell, green discharge, itching,redness
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