Research designs in addition to methods Criteria in social research Types of validity Experimental design elements Threats to internal validity

Research designs in addition to methods Criteria in social research Types of validity Experimental design elements Threats to internal validity www.phwiki.com

Research designs in addition to methods Criteria in social research Types of validity Experimental design elements Threats to internal validity

James, Marty, Executive Sports Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Research designs in addition to methods A Research Design provides a framework as long as the collection in addition to analysis of data. Choice of research design reflects decisions about priorities given to the dimensions of the research process. A Research Method is simply a technique as long as collecting data. Choice of research method reflects decisions about the type of instruments or techniques to be used. Key concept 3.1 Page 46 Key concept 3.2 Page 46 Criteria in social research Reliability – are measures consistent Replication/replicability – is study repeatable Validity – are conclusions well-founded Pages 46, 47 Types of validity Measurement (or construct) validity – do measures reflect concepts Internal validity – are causal relations between variables real External validity – can results be generalized beyond the research setting Ecological validity – are findings applicable to everyday life Pages 47, 48

Marinello School of Beauty-Palmdale CA www.phwiki.com

This Particular University is Related to this Particular Journal

Alternative criteria in qualitative research Credibility, parallels internal validity – i.e. how believable are the findings Transferability, parallels external validity – i.e. do the findings apply to other contexts Dependability, parallels reliability – i.e. are the findings likely to apply at other times Confirmability, parallels objectivity – i.e. has the investigator allowed his or her values to intrude to a high degree Trustworthiness (Lincoln in addition to Guba (1985) : Importance of a topic in its field Contribution to the literature in that field Relevance (Hammersley 1992) : Pages 48, 49 Types of research design 1. Experimental 2. Cross-sectional 3. Longitudinal 4. Case study 5. Comparative R in addition to om assignment of subjects to experimental in addition to control groups, Pre-testing of both groups, Independent variable manipulated; all other variables held constant, Post-testing of both groups, Computation in addition to analysis of group differences Experimental design elements Page 50

Classical experimental design Key: Obs = observation Exp = experimental treatment (manipulation of the independent variable) T = timing Figure 3.1 Page 52 Threats to internal validity Other (non-experimental) events may have caused the changes observed (‘history’) Subjects may become sensitized to ‘testing’ People change over time in any event (‘maturation’) Non-r in addition to om ‘selection’ could explain differences ‘Ambiguity about the direction of causal influence’ because sometimes the temporal sequence is unclear Based on Campbell (1957) in addition to Cook in addition to Campbell (1979) Pages 52, 53 Threats to external validity 1. Interaction of selection in addition to treatment 2. Interaction of setting in addition to treatment 3. Interaction of history in addition to treatment 4. Interaction effects of pretesting 5. Reactive effects of experimental arrangements Based on Campbell (1957) in addition to Cook in addition to Campbell (1979) Pages 53, 54

Cross-sectional design “A cross-sectional design entails the collection of data on more than one case (usually quite a lot more than one) in addition to at a single point in time in order to collect a body of quantitative or quantifiable data in connection with two or more variables (usually many more than two), which are then examined to detect patterns of association.” Key concept 3.6 Page 58 “Survey research comprises a cross-sectional design in relation to which data are collected predominantly by questionnaire or by structured interview on more than one case (usually quite a lot more than one) in addition to at a single point in time in order to collect a body of quantitative or quantifiable data in connection with two or more variables (usually many more than two), which are then examined to detect patterns of association.” in addition to survey research Key concept 3.7 Page 60 Cross-sectional design Figure 3.3 Figure 3.2

Evaluating cross-sectional research Reliability in addition to Measurement Validity are not connected to the design, as such, Replicability will be high as long as the researcher specifies all the procedures Internal Validity is weak, because co-relations are much more likely to be found than causality External Validity will be strong if the sample is truly r in addition to om Ecological Validity may be compromised by the instruments used. Pages 59 – 61 Using the same methods to compare two or more meaningfully contrasting cases Can be qualitative or quantitative Often cross-cultural comparisons Gallie’s (1978) study of the impact of automation on industrial workers in Engl in addition to in addition to France Problem of translating research instruments in addition to finding comparable samples Includes multiple case studies Comparative design Pages 72, 73 A comparative design Figure 3.5 Page 72

Evaluating comparative design The characteristics are identical to those of cross-sectional design, because the comparative design is essentially two or more cross-sectional studies carried out at the same point in time. Comparing two or more cases can show circumstances in which a particular theory will or will not hold. Page 74 Survey of the same sample on more than one occasion Typically used to map change in social research In a panel study (e.g. BHPS – British Household Panel Survey – see Research in focus 3.10 – annual survey since 1991) Or a cohort study (e.g. NCDS – National Child Development Study – see Research in focus 3.11 –sample of children born in 1958) Longitudinal design Page 64 The longitudinal design Figure 3.4 Page 65

Evaluating longitudinal research Overall, the characteristics are very similar to cross-sectional research designs. Special problems: Attrition, because people die, or move home, or withdraw from the study. Knowing when is the right time as long as the next wave of data collection. The first round may have been badly thought out, which leaves the later rounds in a bit of a mess. A panel conditioning effect may creep in to the research Page 65 detailed in addition to intensive analysis of one case e.g. a single community, school, family, person, event, or organization often involves qualitative research case is the focus of location/setting just provides a background types of case: critical, unique, exemplifying, revelatory, longitudinal e.g. Holdaway (1982, 1983): ethnography of occupational culture in a particular police as long as ce Case study design Page 67 Evaluating case-study research The biggest issue concerns external validity, because it is impossible to generalize the findings. Many case-writers argue, though, that the point of the research is to examine particulars rather than attempt to generalize. Cases may be extended longitudinally or through a comparative design. Pages 62, 63

Both quantitative in addition to qualitative strategies can be executed through any of the research designs covered in this chapter – although experimentation is rarely used in qualitative research. Survey research is the most typical as long as m as long as quantitative strategies Ethnographic studies are most typical of qualitative strategies. Bringing research strategy in addition to research design together Table 3.1 Page 76

James, Marty Napa Valley Register Executive Sports Editor www.phwiki.com

James, Marty Executive Sports Editor

James, Marty is from United States and they belong to Napa Valley Register and they are from  Napa, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and James, Marty deal with the subjects like Sports

Journal Ratings by Marinello School of Beauty-Palmdale

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Marinello School of Beauty-Palmdale and short form of this particular Institution is CA and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.