Research question Voluntary programs Beyond-Compliance Voluntary program research Theoretical motivation

Research question Voluntary programs Beyond-Compliance Voluntary program research Theoretical motivation www.phwiki.com

Research question Voluntary programs Beyond-Compliance Voluntary program research Theoretical motivation

Brown, August, Content Producer, Guide section has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Investing Up: FDI in addition to the Cross-Country Diffusion of ISO 14001 Management Systems Research question How does FDI influence the cross-country diffusion of ISO 14001, the most widely adopted voluntary environmental program in the world Voluntary programs Important instrument of CSR Adoption not m in addition to ated by the law Beyond compliance, seeking to create positive social externalities Sponsored by a variety of actors Across issue areas in addition to scales

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Beyond-Compliance Voluntary program research Emergence (how, where) Diffusion (facility, firm, country levels) Efficacy (social, regulatory, economic per as long as mance) Theoretical motivation Debates on economic integration regulatory races convergence to a global model Does FDI lead host country institutions to converge to a world model Does FDI replicate home countries’ “varieties of capitalism”

Specifically How do ISO 14001 adoption rates in FDI’s home country influence ISO 14001 adoption rates in FDI’s host countries Example Japanese ISO adoption levels are 4 times US while the economy is one-third of the US economy. Per GDP dollar, Japan has 12 times ISO registered facilities vs. the US. In host economies, would Japanese MNEs encourage ISO 14001 adoption more than American MNEs Diffusion Mechanisms MNEs can require their subsidiaries to adopt ISO 14001 Subsidiaries, in turn, can influence the domestic supply chain Domestic firms might imitate superior practices of MNEs Movement of labor in addition to managers from MNEs to domestic firms

ISO Geneva-based, non-governmental body Over 15,000 st in addition to ards to date ISO members National st in addition to ard bodies How ISO 14001 Works Management system based Written environmental policy Senior management approval Designated manager Internal audit Employee training External audit

ISO 14001 adoption Key hypotheses Hypothesis 1 (Country-of-origin): ISO 14001 adoption levels will be higher in host economies which receive FDI from home countries that themselves have high levels of ISO 14001 adoption Key hypotheses Hypothesis 2 (race-to-the bottom): More FDI in host economy is associated with lower levels of ISO 14001 adoption

Key independent variables Overall FDI = FDI/GDP Bilateral FDI it: = ISOjt x (FDI ijt / FDIit )2 Model FDI International Economy World Society of ISO certifications Domestic Economy Domestic Politics Other Controls Model FDI International Economy – Bilateral exports – Exports World Society of ISO certifications Domestic Economy Domestic Politics Other Controls

Model FDI International Economy World Society – IGO – INGO – Language – Neighbors of ISO certifications Domestic Economy Domestic Politics Other Controls Model FDI International Economy World Society of ISO certifications Domestic Economy – GDP (in PPP) – GDP per capita – (GDP per capita)2 Domestic Politics Other Controls Model FDI International Economy World Society of ISO certifications Domestic Economy Domestic Politics – SO2 – Regulations Other Controls

Model FDI International Economy World Society of ISO certifications Domestic Economy Domestic Politics Other Controls – ISO 9000 – country fixed effects Methods DV: of ISO 14001 certificates per country per year Negative binomial event count Serial correlation Spatial dependencies Robust st in addition to ard errors Country fixed effects Lagged covariates N= 686 (98 countries, 1996-2002) Results

Brown, August Los Angeles Times Content Producer, Guide section www.phwiki.com

Conclusions FDI could lead to investing up, not a race to the bottom FDI might replicate home countries’ “varieties of capitalism” in host economies Policy implications For host economies, what matters is not “how much FDI” but “from where” Home countries exercise “soft power” via FDI Leverage globalization Globalization creates opportunities as long as NGOs to leverage MNEs’ supply chains to spread preferred norms

Future work Scope conditions: would “investing up” hold when: – activists oppose a program – the program leads to distributional conflicts Look at disaggregated FDI Would Chinese or Indian FDI transmit similar norms as British or American FDI New projects Look at the role of FDI in addition to trade in the diffusion of human rights, labor rights, in addition to women rights Institutional foundations of CSR Interpretation H1: Bilateral FDI significant +/- 1 SD: 23 (median overall = 4; median in 2002 = 38)

Brown, August Content Producer, Guide section

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