Rob Edgecock Accelerator Production of Medical Radioisotopes History Current sta

Rob Edgecock Accelerator Production of Medical Radioisotopes History Current sta www.phwiki.com

Rob Edgecock Accelerator Production of Medical Radioisotopes History Current sta

Roberts, Denise, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Rob Edgecock Accelerator Production of Medical Radioisotopes History Current status Future problems with availability Our solution Conclusions Nuclear Medicine Two main diagnostic radioisotopes: PET Nuclear Medicine Two main diagnostic radioisotopes: Single photon emitters – SPECT

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History First cyclotron built by Ernest O. Lawrence & Stanley Livingston at Berkeley in 1932. Energy = 80 keV, Diameter = 13cm History – Timeline History – Timeline 99MoO42- adsorbed into Al2O3 Mo decays to 99mTcO4- (66 hrs) Washed out with saline solution 99mTc 99Tc + (141 keV) (6hrs)

History – Timeline Status Accelerator Production 550 in 2007 Growing at ~50/year

Accelerator Production Issue 1: 99mTc Production Well-known 99mTc problems due to (old) reactor production Issue 1: 99mTc Production Well-known 99mTc problems due to (old) reactor production Moly crisis in 2008/9 Potential shortage in 2016 due NRU closure & LEU Various alternative production methods proposed, including accelerators BNMS & STFC Report, December 2014

Accelerator Production Particle accelerators Electron accelerators Deuteron accelerators Proton accelerators 100Mo target Heavy nucleus target Bremsstrahlung target Carbon target n n 98Mo target 235U target 238U target 100Mo target 100Mo target Reaction: 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc Reaction: 98Mo(n,)99Mo Reaction: 235U(n,f)99Mo Reaction: 238U(,f)99Mo Reaction: 100Mo(,n)99Mo Reaction: 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo Primary particle Secondary particle Short term: <2017 Med term: 2017-2025 Long term: >2025 Nuclear Energy Agency: direct production 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc Accelerator Production However, in context of the uncertainty about the future global supply of 99Mo, it is recommended that the UK should diversify its strategy of reliance on reactor-based 99mMo in addition to support the development of novel technologies as long as the non-reactor production of 99mTc either directly or via its 99Mo precursor. Based on an assessment of the relative maturity of the different options in addition to the possible co-use as long as purposes such as manufacture of other radioisotopes, it is concluded that the most promising technology as long as the provision of 99mTc in the UK is its direct production using proton cyclotron bombardment at moderate energies between 18 in addition to 24 MeV. Accelerator Production However, in context of the uncertainty about the future global supply of 99Mo, it is recommended that the UK should diversify its strategy of reliance on reactor-based 99mMo in addition to support the development of novel technologies as long as the non-reactor production of 99mTc either directly or via its 99Mo precursor. Based on an assessment of the relative maturity of the different options in addition to the possible co-use as long as purposes such as manufacture of other radioisotopes, it is concluded that the most promising technology as long as the provision of 99mTc in the UK is its direct production using proton cyclotron bombardment at moderate energies between 18 in addition to 24 MeV.

Issue 2: Alternative isotopes Replace 99mTc with other radioisotopes PET, e.g. 18F, 82Rb, 68Ga, 11C, Other SPECT isotopes, e.g. 123I, 87mSr, 113mIn, 81mKr, etc Potential problem: increased production costs Needs more cost effective accelerator production Issue 3: Therapeutic Radioisotopes All reactor produced None in the UK Supply can be a problem Some isotopes need : 211At, 67Cu, 47Sc It is recommended that a national strategy as long as the use of radiotherapeutics as long as cancer treatment should be developed to address the supply of radiotherapeutics, projected costs of drugs in addition to resources, the clinical introduction of new radioactive drugs, national equality of access to treatments in addition to resource planning. Our Solution: FFAG CONFORM 20MeV electron proof of principle accelerator: EMMA

Our Solution: FFAG CONFORM Our Solution: FFAG FFAG/strong focussing cyclotron Injection energy: 75 keV Extraction: 10 MeV – 102cm 14 MeV – 120cm 28 MeV – 170cm Isochronous to 0.3% Very flexible: protons, alphas, variable energy Huge beam acceptance Unique features: 20mA internal target Per as long as mance

Target Options Internal: 200keV energy loss 10m 100Mo Yield/turn = 0.1mCi/Ah at 14 MeV External target yield = 4.74mCi/Ah 48 turns Internal target issues: cooling outgasing processing Target Options Radioisotope Production Looked the yields of various imaging isotopes using Talys as long as 1 hr at 2mA

Roberts, Denise Water Conditioning & Purification Magazine Managing Editor www.phwiki.com

Radioisotope Production Work to be done on FFAG Modelling: – optimise lattice – study internal targets – study extraction in addition to beam delivery – look at central region in addition to beam capture Engineering: – magnet design – RF design – central region design – target design Business case Aim: – build it to make in addition to sell radioisotopes – commercialise the FFAG Work to be done on FFAG Modelling: – optimise lattice – study internal targets – study extraction in addition to beam delivery – look at central region in addition to beam capture Engineering: – magnet design – RF design – central region design – target design Business case Aim: – build it to make in addition to sell radioisotopes – commercialise the FFAG

LPA Option “Evolving” RPA (Radiation Pressure Acceleration) Light-sail BOA (Breakout after-burner) Collisionless shock-wave acceleration “Established” TNSA (Target Normal Sheath acceleration) Modelling 18MeV F Benard et al; Implementation of Multi-Curie production of 99mTc by Conventional Medical Cyclotrons; J Nucl Med 2014; 55:1017-1022 Investigate the effect of b in addition to width on the accelerated proton beam – maintaining acceptable contaminants Determine requirements of the source laser to be competitive in the future. TRIUMF analysis shows present isotopes post refinement are more critical than overall % refinement Experimental Access Modify existing CLF ion spectrometers with adjustable slits as long as energy in addition to b in addition to width selection Natural in addition to refined moly samples will be used to confirm modelling & reaction pathways.

99mTc Confirmation Clear 140keV 99mTc emission observed from the 100Mo (p,2n) 99mTc reaction & excellent half-life match Other isomers present include 95mTc , 95mTc, 94mTc, 94Tc, 96Tc, 93Tc Calculations derive a 99mTc activity of 0.2Ci as long as a single-shot exposure. R.Clarke et al, SPIE Proceedings Vol 8779 87791C (2013) Based on a 10Hz system operating at the levels produced, saturation yields of 675mCi can be achieved using enriched 100Mo. 22mCi highest patient doses exceeded after < 20 min exposure times. Optimisation of proton beam could improve these figures. Conclusions Problems with future radioisotope supply: - 99mTc availability - cost effective production of PET in addition to SPECT alternatives - Therapeutic radioisotope availability Proposing a solution to all of these Struggling to get funding to pursue it (as usual)

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