Satellite Communications What is a Satellite What is a Satellite (Contd.) What is a satellite system How a satellite works

Satellite Communications What is a Satellite What is a Satellite (Contd.) What is a satellite system How a satellite works www.phwiki.com

Satellite Communications What is a Satellite What is a Satellite (Contd.) What is a satellite system How a satellite works

Beaupre, Jon, Faculty Advisor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Satellite Communications Introduction in addition to Historical Background What is a Satellite Satellite: In astronomical terms, a satellite is a celestial body that orbits around a planet. Example: The moon is a satellite of Earth. In aerospace terms, a satellite is a space vehicle launched by humans in addition to orbits around Earth or another celestial body. What is a Satellite (Contd.) Communications Satellite: It is a microwave repeater in the sky that consists of a diverse combination of one or more components including transmitter, receiver, amplifier, regenerator, filter onboard computer, multiplexer, demultiplexer, antenna, waveguide etc. A satellite radio repeater is also called transponder. This is usually a combination of transmitter in addition to receiver.

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What is a satellite system A satellite system consists of one or more satellites, a ground-based station to control the operation of the system, in addition to a user network earth stations that provides the interface facilities as long as the transmission in addition to reception of terrestrial communications traffic. How a satellite works A satellite stays in orbit because the gravitational pull of the earth is balanced by the centripetal as long as ce of the revolving satellite. One Earth station transmits the signals to the satellite at Up link frequency. Up link frequency is the frequency at which Earth station is communicating with a satellite. The satellite transponder process the signal in addition to sends it to the second Earth station at another frequency called downlink frequency.

Advantages of Satellite Communications over Terrestrial Communications The coverage area greatly exceeds. Transmission cost of a satellite is independent of the distance from the center of the coverage area. Satellite-to-satellite communication is very precise. Higher b in addition to widths are available as long as use. Disadvantages of Satellite Communications Launching satellites into orbits is costly. Satellite b in addition to width is gradually becoming used up. The propagation delay is larger. Regions of Space Space is defined as a place free from obstacles It can be divided into three regions: Air Space -> region below 100 km from earth’s surface Outer Space -> also called cosmic space in addition to ranges from 100 km up till 42, 000 km. It is mostly used by communication satellites. Deep Space -> Regions beyond 42,000 km fall in this category

Active in addition to Passive Satellites Active satellites are used as long as linking in addition to also as long as processing the signals. The linkage is known as bent pipe technology where processing like frequency translation, power amplification etc take place. Active satellites employ ‘Regenerative Technology’ which consists of demodulation, processing, frequency translation, switching in addition to power amplification are carried out. Block used as long as this purpose is called transponder. Passive satellites do-not have on-board processing in addition to are just used to link two stations through space. Low cost – Loss of power – not useful as long as communication applications. Historical Overview 1945 Theorist named Clarke studied that satellite orbiting in equatorial orbit at radius of approx. 42,000 km would look as if stationary if moving at a specific speed. 3 satellites at a space of 120 degree apart can cover the whole world. Evolution of the concept of GEO 1950’s –Putting the pieces together: 1956 -Trans-Atlantic cable opened (about 12 telephone channels per operator). 1957 First man-made satellite launched by as long as mer USSR (Sputnik-1, LEO). It was used to identify atmospheric density of various orbital layers. It provided data about radio signal distribution in ionosphere. 1958 First US satellite launched (SCORE). First voice communication established via satellite (LEO, lasted 35 days in orbit). 1960’s –First satellite communications: 1960 First passive communication satellite (Large balloons, Echo I in addition to II). 1962: First active communication satellite (Telstar I , MEO). 1963: First satellite into geostationary (GEO) orbit (Syncom1, communication failed). 1964: International Telecomm. Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) created. 1965 First successful communications GEO (Early Bird / INTELSAT 1).

1970’s –GEO Applications Development, DBS: 1972 First domestic satellite system operational (Canada). 1975 First successful direct broadcast experiment (USA-India). 1977 A plan as long as direct broadcast satellites (DBS) assigned by the ITU 1979 International Mobile Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) established. 1980’s –GEO Applications Exp in addition to ed, Mobile: 1981 First reusable launch vehicle flight. 1982 International maritime communications made operational. 1984 First direct-to-home broadcast system operational (Japan). 1987 Successful trials of l in addition to -mobile communications (Inmarsat). 1989-90 Global mobile communication service extended to l in addition to mobile in addition to aeronautical use (Inmarsat) 1990+’s NGSO applications development in addition to GEO expansion 1990-95: Proposals of non-geostationary (NGSO) systems as long as mobile communications. Continuing growth of VSATs around the world. Spectrum allocation as long as non-GEO systems. Continuing growth of DBS. DirectTV created. 1997: Launch of first batch of LEO as long as h in addition to -held terminals (Iridium). Voice-service portables in addition to paging-service pocket size mobile terminals launched (Inmarsat). 1998-2000: Mobile LEO systems initiate service in addition to fail afterwards (Iridium,Globalstar).

Motivation to use the Sky Orbital Types

Beaupre, Jon University Times Faculty Advisor www.phwiki.com

Beaupre, Jon Faculty Advisor

Beaupre, Jon is from United States and they belong to University Times and they are from  Los Angeles, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Beaupre, Jon deal with the subjects like Student/Alumni Interest

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