SCDM St in addition to ard Cold Dark Matter Model What is wrong with the SCDM Experimental Overview Experimental Overview

SCDM St in addition to ard Cold Dark Matter Model What is wrong with the SCDM Experimental Overview Experimental Overview

SCDM St in addition to ard Cold Dark Matter Model What is wrong with the SCDM Experimental Overview Experimental Overview

Pepper, Jeremy, Founder of POP! Public Relations has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal What is in our future The big crunch, the big loneliness, or something much worse SCDM St in addition to ard Cold Dark Matter Model Assumptions: No curvature to the universe No dark energy or quintessence Prediction: Gravity has been retarding the expansion of the universe since the Big Bang Gravity is the sole as long as ce effecting the expansion rate of the universe What is wrong with the SCDM These three observations: Type 1a Supernovae (1998) CMB-Cosmic Microwave Background (2001) Ch in addition to ra X-Ray Observer (2004) Have produced evidence that: The expansion of the universe is accelerating Something is counteracting gravity

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Experimental Overview Type 1a Supernovae appeared fainter than predicted Supernovae with the higher redshifts appeared fainter than predicted by SCDM in an empty universe. Experimental Overview Cosmic Microwave Background echoes of the Big Bang Figure 2. A CMB imaging of the last scattering epoch. CMB imaging has been used to as long as mulate a picture of the early universe Experimental Overview The intense gravitic field within clusters heats the gas up to 100 million degrees Celsius, making it only detectable via X-rays. Figure 3. A quick journey amidst the super-hot gas of a cluster. The Ch in addition to ra X-Ray Observer is used to analyzes the gas fraction within clusters at different distances.

What causes this acceleration Quintessence Dark Energy Warping of Space-Time Figure 4. An exaggerated look at the deceleration in addition to eventual acceleration of the expansion of the universe. The Cosmic Triangle One model used to explain this phenomenon introduces vacuum energy in addition to a curvature to the universe. The triangle delineates different proportions of matter, curvature, in addition to vacuum energy, such that they sum to 1. Other dimensions can be added, but the vacuum energy can be used to represent quintessence, dark energy, etc. Figure 5. The Cosmic Triangle. Curvature Models Closed Open Flat

What is the actual ratio Scientists believe that the current makeup of the universe is dominated by Dark Energy Figure 6. A pie chart delineating the makeup of the universe. Our connection between dark energy in addition to matter There is conversion between dark matter in addition to dark energy -The Universe shortly after the big b in addition to is energy dominated. Most of this energy is dark resulting in Inflation -As universe cools, energy can convert into matter including dark. This yields a greater gravitation effect thus slowing expansion -As Universe exp in addition to , the avg. mass density decreases reducing the effect of gravity in addition to allowing the vacuum energy of dark energy to dominate. This cause the universe to accelerate again. Dark Energy How is the ratio of dark energy changing with time Figure 7. Possible outcomes as long as our universe.

Is Dark Energy Really the Answer String Theory predicts multiple dimensions. The answer might lie in other dimensions / universes in addition to our misunderst in addition to ing of how gravity works Traditional views: Dark Energy Einstein cosmological constant: empty space has mass/ energy 10^-26 kg/m^3 Consistent with observations but so small Static: implies homogeneity Quintessence: Energy field: like a fog through space Adjusts to mass density: inverse to mass Fits inflation Easier to mesh with current models but still size concerns Virtual Particles Virtual particles appear spontaneously in complete vacuum, in addition to have a tiny lifespan It is believed that virtual particles exert a repelling gravitic as long as ce on each other This has led scientists to speculate, “How much does nothing weigh” Experimental measurements as long as the mass of virtual particles is 10^50 times too great

Gravity Is a 1/r^(x-1) law where x= dimensions. As x increases the as long as ce of gravity decreases 2-d world 3-d world 4-d world Traditional String theory Assumes 3 dimensions are infinite in length while the rest are made of tiny circles Other dimensions are small approximately equal to Planck length 10^-35m We don’t observe extra dimensions because scale is so small Thought to explain why laws of physics including gravity break down on a small scale New ideas about String theory All dimensions are infinitely long Our traditional 3-d world is a membrane in which all other dimensions are orthogonal to. Traditional particles (proton, electron, etc) are open ended strings with ends attached to membrane. Thus we can’t escape into other dimensions The Graviton is special: Closed string like rubber b in addition to which is free to leave the membrane

The Graviton is free to escape the membrane while the electron is tied down The Graviton Q: If the Graviton can escape into other dimensions why do we see gravity as a 1/R^2 law A: Only certain Graviton wavelengths can escape into other dimensions. Thus, there must be some critical distance / wavelength. At such a distance gravitons explore all possible routes in addition to thus we see much lower gravity. Looks like gravitons just disappear. At small distances we approach the order of magnitude of the strings themselves in addition to thus gravity also acts strange. We mainly observe middle range distances in addition to thus see “normal” gravity Imagine a hammer hitting a metal plate. The sound wave travels along the plate but a small part is transmitted perpendicular to the plate. Over small distances, the parallel motion dominates. However, over large distances, the energy lost is significant. This is analogous to gravity Q: How does this apply to our Universe A: It all depends on the membrane. It is a mysterious entity unto itself. Even in empty space virtual particles can appear on membrane (probably due to quantum fluctuations). All other dimension are truly empty in a vacuum. -Think of the membrane like a dielectric in addition to virtual particles as having +/- energy just like +/- charge – The graviton wave is a transverse wave just like an EM waves. This means it moves virtual particles orthogonal to direction of motion. -When the wave enters perpendicular to the membrane, it moves the virtual particles so that they create a gravitational field that exactly cancels out that of the graviton -The Graviton can’t enter the membrane in addition to thus we see no gravitational effects. However, the graviton slightly warps the membrane when it reorients the virtual particles -When the wave is parallel, there is no effect. Gravity acts like normal

No Graviton: virtual particles are r in addition to omly aligned Perpendicular Graviton V. Particles move in addition to warp membrane Parallel Graviton V. Particles feel no as long as ce in addition to stay still Why do we see “normal” gravity so often Waves infringe on the membrane at all angles. But only perpendicular components are canceled out Graviton waves come in all sorts of wavelengths in addition to energies. These wavelengths are related to the distances between objects ie. when distances are large most waves have long wavelengths The membrane only responds to medium energy / wavelength waves. Thus small in addition to large energy waves have no effect on virtual particles We neither live in a macro or microscopic world. Most of the gravitons we deal with are middle range in energy in addition to wavelength. They are trapped by the membrane in addition to we observe “normal” gravity Gravitons between the earth in addition to sun try to escape but most are blocked by the membrane due to medium range energy The wavelengths between gravitons emitted by distant galaxies are very small. Most gravitons are free to move into extra dimensions. There as long as e we observed a much weaker gravitational attraction.

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Why are only certain gravitons affected by the membrane Let’s return to the analogy of the dielectric Tap water is a dielectric. EM waves can redistribute +/- ions This is how a microwave works However, the oceans don’t boil because only certain waves can move the molecules. Radio waves (long) in addition to visible (short) go through water but microwave (medium) polarize. -Long= little energy can’t move / polarize Short= too fast, particles can’t react This is what happens with the gravitons. The long wavelengths can’t move the virtual particles while the short ones are too fast as long as the particles too react. What does this have to do with the Universe exp in addition to ing Graviton leakage dents the membrane Since it is r in addition to om in addition to occurs in empty space it imposes somewhat uni as long as m curvature to the universe. When there is little mass to curve time-space, this effects comes to dominate Similar to a cosmological constant. This bending of time space acts like a vacuum energy that accelerates universe. What is a vacuum energy Empty space is not really empty. It is populated by +/- virtual particles that arise because of the uncertainty principle in addition to quantum fluctuations. Since we can’t pinpoint position in addition to momentum of mass or energy, particles can in addition to do appear anywhere in space Just as air moves from high pressure to low pressure, space will do the same thing. The dents caused by the gravitons in addition to virtual particles create high pressure spots that act to push the universe to exp in addition to . This contrasts with other models that argue that the vacuum energy is the virtual particles themselves

What are other ideas Gravitons have mass in addition to decay over time. Thus the larger the scale the greater the deviation from “normal” gravity. But it doesn’t explain small scale deviations. Modify relativity to respond to space time curvature. Insignificant at first but as universe ages it dominates. But it still doesn’t explain why Modify gravity to act differently at very small in addition to large lengths. But we still need dark energy Will we ever know what is going on Experimental evidence is the final arbiter. Can we ever measure these effects in our medium sized world Yes. Graviton leakage from the Earth in addition to Moon should cause the Moon to precess How much One trillionth of a degree every month. With current equipment, we might actually detect it. What do you think it is The key is no-one really knows why the universe is exp in addition to ing. It’s truly anybody’s guess. So

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