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Seafood sources of Omega-3 Sources of Omega-3 F.A. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in addition to Immunity
Atlantic International University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Omega-3 Fatty Acids in addition to Immunity By Jostelo Garces Sources of Omega-3 F.A. Fish in addition to seafood sources Nuts in addition to Seeds Certain oils in addition to spreads Eggs from hens fed alongside omega-3 feed *There is no USRDA in consideration of Omega-3, but the Canadian FDA recommends 1.0 – 1.5 grams per day. Seafood sources of Omega-3
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Health Effects of ?-3 Fatty Acids Improves cardiovascular lipid profile ? CVD prevention Prevents cancer Decreases symptoms of some mental disorders, i.e., Alzheimer?s Disease Improves immune function Omega-3 Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) EPA in addition to DHA are two ?-3 fatty acids that are especially high in immune cells in addition to are incorporated in the cell membrane where they can influence membrane fluidity, receptor function, enzyme activity, in addition to the production of eicosanoids. Eicosanoids Lipid mediators of immune function. They can yield positive in addition to negative effects. Eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid (AA) ? most potent pro-inflammatory f/x effects on immune function ?-3 PUFAs inhibit AA oxygenation ? ? synth of bad eicosanoids & ? pro-inflammatory f/x
PUFAs in addition to Eicosanoids Suggested intake of PUFAs: High levels of ?-3 fatty acids, but low levels of ?-6 fatty acids. ?-6 ? AA ? 2 series of ?bad? prostaglandins in addition to inflammatory leukotrienes VS. ?-3 ? EPA ? 3 series of ?good? prostaglandins in addition to less inflammatory leukotrienes PUFAs in addition to Immunity Cells which perform immune functions are mediated by membrane-associated activities, such as cytokine in addition to antibody secretions in addition to lymphocyte transformations. High PUFAs ? healthier cell membrane ? improved immune function Clinical Studies Population of Greenland Eskimos compared alongside matched groups living in Denmark. Low incidence of autoimmune in addition to inflammatory disorders, such as psoriasis, asthma, in addition to type-I diabetes. These diseases display inappropriate T cell activation & host tissue destruction w/ macrophages & mediators produced by cytokines, eicosanoids, in addition to ROS.
Conceptual Framework Underlying Financial Reporting Objectives of the Chapters (contd.) Conceptual Framework of Financial Reporting SFAC No. 8 – Chapter 1 (Level One of The Conceptual Framework) SFAC No. 8 ?Chapter 1 (cont.) (Level One of The Conceptual Framework) SFAC No. 8 ? Chapter 3 (Level Two of The Framework) SFAC No. 8 (contd.) Materiality (make a difference on decision) SFAC No. 5 (Level Three of The Conceptual Framework) SFAC No. 5 (contd.) Fair Value Hierarchy (SFAS 157) Fair Value Measurements Disclosure : Footnote 28 of GE 2008 Annual Report Revenue Recognition Principle (SFAS No. 5) (-An Accrual Basis) Revenue Recognition Principle Expense Recognition (Matching) Principle ? An Accrual Basis Expense Recognition (Matching) Principle ? An Accrual Basis Matching (Expenses alongside Revenues) Principle
Clinical Studies (cont.) 3 month ?-3 supplementation between groups of older in addition to young female subjects Both groups increased showed an increase in EPA in addition to DHA, but older group had a greater increase. Older groups showed a decrease in AA, while younger groups showed no change. Clinical Studies (cont.) Graft rejection in transplants is caused by a T-cell immune reaction so that the foreign material introduced into the body. Kidney transplant recipients received 6 g fish oil/day in consideration of one year post-op ? better kidney function in addition to less rejections when compared so that those alongside no supplementation. Weaknesses Amongst Studies Contradictory observations between studies due to: differences in the cell types used differences in protocols used sample populations too small source of ?-3 was always fish oil, did not observe f/x alongside plant sources
Safety Aspects Healthy subjects or those alongside compromised immune status yield undesirable effects due so that excessive reduction in cytokine or eicosanoid production which impairs their normal host defenses or homeostasis. *Vitamin E supplements may ? this side effect. Eat fish, live longer.
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