Searching as long as the Origin of Mass IIT 31 October 2002 In Terms of Test Statistic:
Jaeger, Don, General Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Searching as long as the Origin of Mass IIT 31 October 2002 Outline: The St in addition to ard Model; Higgs Boson ElectroWeak Corrections: a Signal! Higgs Production Hints of a Direct Signal Future Prospects Mark Oreglia The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago Thats because the Higgs particle is a manifestation of a field which could explain the mechanism by which all particles get mass. One of IITs illustrious faculty feels the Higgs boson is so important it deserves the moniker God particle. It is not yet clear that the Higgs boson exists.
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Explaining the St in addition to ard Model (thanks to Claus Grupen!) Electro-Weak Physics We had a great theory : QED now add W,Z WW cross section alone shows the need as long as W, Z: The St in addition to ard Model It was so simple be as long as e 1968: QED: massive fermions massless photon; no because it violates Gauge invariance which we like because it gives rise naturally to conserved charges Attempt to unify QED w/ Weak Force: additional bosons known to exist but cant just add boson mass terms The trick of Weinberg in addition to Salam: add scalar field f Two cases: m2 > 0 : not interesting m2 < 0 remarkable! Symmetry Breaking For m2<0, min V at = v Exp in addition to ing f about this minimum gives rise to new structure: bosons: 1 massless neutral (g) 1 massive neutral (Z0) 2 massive charged (W) in addition to a left-over scalar: H boson masses show the sym. breaking! Lagrangian now has mass terms: M2W = ¼ g2 v2 M2Z = ¼ (g2+g2) v2 Mg = 0 M2H = 2 v2 l in addition to v = 246 GeV Fermion masses li v (Yukawa couplings) H-fermion coupling v-1 mf h Higgs field is a mass generator! Philip Anderson On occasional as long as ays outside CMT I worked on pulsar glitches with David Pines in addition to invented the "Higgs" boson in 1962. We really should credit this Condensed Matter physicist with the discovery of the basic SSB mechanism. From his Princeton Research Description: but he has often been an outspoken opponent of HEP programs Things are even better in a theory having 2 Higgs fields ( in addition to with SUSY!) MSSM with SUSY, get exact cancellations without fine tuning problem family of 5 Higgs particles or more The MSSM model, e.g., gives masses in addition to rates in terms of a fairly small set of fundamental parameters 5 or >100, depending on symmetry! H field couples to mass creates a mechanism as long as generating masses in the theory H boson cancels divergences SM without Higgs boson has WW scattering cross section violating unitarity Unifies EM in addition to weak as long as ces
The Higgs Mass Not specified explicitly but restrictions are imposed by the structure of gauge couplings l is a running coupling (i.e., function of the energy scale Q) large-l: in addition to so l can be calculated if you fix a high energy cutoff scale L: l finite gives an upper bound on mH (L in addition to au Pole) small-l: the t-quark Yukawa coupling is large quartic coupling positive gives a lower bound on mH Thus mH = 180 GeV at L, unless: there is new physics on the way Theoretical Mass Bounds At current energy scale, mH can cover a large range Current limit because there is a very solid body of circumstantial evidence that a Higgs-like object exists in addition to is perturbing some high-precision measurements we have recently made
Indirect Evidence of the Higgs The existence of a Higgs-like object with mass on the order of 100 GeV is suggested by several precision electroweak measurements Higgs boson modifies the Z propagator in addition to decay vertices small correction (~ 0.1%) ~ ln(m) largest effect in angular distributions of Z-decay products The WW cross section also requires the existence of a Higgs-like object We are psyched as long as a Higgs discovery! Electroweak Observables W mass Z width Tau Asymmetry Electron asymmetry Direct in addition to Indirect Limits Radiative corrections imply mH = 94 GeV or mH < 210 GeV at 95% CL How to Search as long as it The Higgs particle(s) couple to fermion pairs strength goes like the fermion mass So collide the heaviest particles you can in addition to look as long as appearance of the new bosons In a perfect world we would have a top- or bottom-quark collider this would have the highest production rate But proton colliders are the only practical quark machines, in addition to there are few b quarks in the proton Leptons are clean in addition to simple A muon collider would make a pretty nice Higgs factory But it is a difficult machine to build in addition to we are waiting on Dan Kaplan Settle as long as electron colliders Accelerators We can Consider LEP Large Electron Positron Collider up to Ecm = 209 GeV Fermilab TeVatron proton-antiprotons @ 1 TeV LHC Large Hadron Collider proton-proton @ 14 TeV starts 2008 LC electron Linear Collider electron-positron 0.5-1.3 TeV conceivable 2012ish MSR Muon Storage Ring a tremendous technical challenge perhaps staged as a neutrino factory first towards end of next decade LEP -The Large Electron Positron Collider 27 km circumference electron synchrotron supported 4 experiments simultaneously initiated in 1989 at Ecm = 91 GeV upgraded over the years with additional superconducting RF cavities reached 209 GeV in summer of 2000 in addition to is now dismantled The 4 Logos ALEPH fine grained DELPHI high tech L3 hi-res photon OPAL general purpose, conservative group quite superb, really Higgs Production at LEP Higgs mass (GeV) MSM Higgs Decays Remember H couples to mass! It predominantly decays to the heaviest particles Decay Topologies Most Common Event Expected B-Tagging The heavy b decay products have long lifetime, in addition to can travel centimeters be as long as e decaying
4-fermion Backgrounds is an irreducible background as long as mH near mZ, in addition to it caused trouble in 1998. Beyond m=100 GeV, backgrounds are low. LEP Has Benefited from Many Higgs Discoveries! ALEPH, 1992, Ecm= 90 GeV Mh=58 GeV L3, 1992, Ecm= 90 GeV Mh=60 GeV ALEPH, 1996, Ecm= 133 GeV Mh+MA=105 GeV ALEPH, 1998, Ecm= 189 GeV Mh=102 GeV ALEPH, 1999, Ecm=196 GeV Mh=105 L3, 2000, Ecm=206 GeV MH+=68 GeV Even OPAL Should Know Better
Y2K LEP Per as long as mance 2000: the maximal LEP upgrade done Two run modes: Maximum Energy Mode 209.14 GeV attained but no klystrons in reserve; if a klystron trips (every 15-60 minutes), the beam is lost refill time: 20-90 minutes Maximum Production Mode keep 1 klystron in reserve 205-207 GeV fills last 3 hours yields 2-4 pb-1 per week HE running stresses LEP: severe pitting in RF cavities but reconditioning worked SM Higgs Cross Section For m=115 GeV, L=150 pb-1: about 6 events/expt as long as 100% efficiency. More like 3 really! Higgs Mass (GeV) How We Spent Summer 2000 The LEP accelerator was scheduled to close down at beginning of September run extended to 30 Sept after a LEPC meeting held on 20 July a meeting of the LEPC was scheduled as long as 5 Sept to decide if any hint of new physics could justify an extension. 4 events (3 from ALEPH, 1 from DELPHI ) were recorded between 20 July in addition to 5 Sept. Three events are perfect c in addition to idates as long as Higgs boson decays. Run extended to 2 Nov. 10 Oct LEPC: No new c in addition to idates LEP shuts 2 Nov as long as this year. 3 Nov LEPC: Big decision time hoped that HE data would double but -1 new c in addition to idates DG declares LEP will be dismantled
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