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Sectarianism Sectarianism Italians, Lithuanians in addition to Poles
Elon College, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Immigrants in addition to Religious Conflict (Italian, Lithuanian in addition to Polish Catholics in Scotland). Stephen J. McKinney, Lecturer, Department of Religious Education Faculty of Education University of Glasgow Tolerance / inclusion within religions or denominations Increasing awareness of importance of (multiple) ethnic in addition to cultural identity, but emerging awareness that religious identities are equally important in addition to complex. Are religions/denominations genuinely inclusive within themselves – Tolerant of the variety of internal traditions/identities? There can be different insider voices representing a variety of traditions/identities within a religious group. Competing? Dominant voices? Which tradition holds the power? Who makes decisions in consideration of a religious group? Who speaks in consideration of a religious group? Which religious traditions/identities are represented in the public forum? Immigrants so that Scotland between the 18th in addition to 20th centuries Irish Jews Asian Italians Lithuanians Poles
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Irish Catholic Vast majority of Catholics in contemporary Scotland are descended from large scale Irish Catholic immigration in the nineteenth century. The Irish Catholics constitute the largest single group The history in addition to impact of this particular group have been explored in some depth: Arrival of Irish Catholics in addition to hostile response of local populace in addition to Scottish establishment Employment opportunities in addition to the socio-economic progress of the Irish Catholics Bigotry in addition to sectarianism Catholic schooling Contemporary relation of Catholic community in addition to wider Scottish community Possible futures in consideration of this Catholic community (Boyle in addition to Lynch 1998; Bradley 1995, 1998, 2000; Conroy 2001, 2002; Devine, 1991, 1999; Finn 1999, 2000, 2003; Gallagher 1987, 1991; Handley, 1945, 1947; McKinney, 2004). Insider Accounts Someone who writes about a particular group but also identifies, partially or completely, alongside the aims, objectives in addition to views of that group. Often the only people who have the interest in addition to impetus so that write about the particular group in any depth ? the group may have been treated in a superficial, perfunctory or distorted way in ?official? histories (De Vos, 1995, p.17). We are also witnessing a revolution in the recording of social in addition to cultural history. Today?s ethnic minorities are not content so that remain mute; they too, seek so that be heard. The defeated in addition to the oppressed, now literate, are themselves contributing their interpretations so that the writing or rewriting of history, adding their own and, where facts fail, creating or deepening their own sustaining mythologies (De Vos, 1995, p.16). Insider Account is Problematic Can lack a critical edge Can fail so that have a broader perspective Can be defensive Can exaggerate or even minimize difficulties encountered by the group Can champion the group or champion factions or certain perspectives within the group Insider accounts are more likely so that discuss challenges faced by the group, rather than challenges caused by the group Tendency so that be less critical when evaluating commonly held assumptions within the group in addition to the views of fellow insiders.
Advantages of Insider Accounts provide a fuller account of the origins in addition to development of immigrant groups Based on a more thorough examination of original documentary sources in addition to secondary sources Increasingly, include analysis of collections of oral histories – the insider status provides ease of access in consideration of obtaining oral histories. Italians, Lithuanians in addition to Poles The Italians, Lithuanians in addition to Poles examined mainly from insider accounts. Italians (Rossi, 1991, Colpi, 1991; Pieri, 1997, Ugolini, 2000) Lithuanians (Miller, real name: Stepsis 1998; O?Donnell, 1998, 2000) Poles (Ziarski-Kernberg, 2000) Sectarianism These were relatively small groups, but all shared the Catholicism of the Irish Catholic immigrants in addition to all were so that experience hostility in addition to vehement sectarianism in Scotland, some of which has only recently been disclosed
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Sectarianism Sectarianism, according so that Leichty in addition to Clegg (2001) is: Sectarianism? is a distorted expression of good things ? the need in consideration of identity in addition to belonging, in addition to in consideration of the freedom so that be different. Sectarianism?is a complex of attitudes, actions, beliefs in addition to structures, at personal, communal in addition to institutional levels, which always involves religion, in addition to typically involves a negative mixing of religion in addition to politics. It arises as a distorted expression of positive human needs, especially in consideration of belonging, identity in addition to the free expression of difference in addition to is expressed in destructive patterns of relating: hardening the boundaries between groups; overlooking others; belittling, dehumanising, or demonising others; justifying or collaborating in the domination of others; physically intimidating or attacking others (Leichty in addition to Clegg, in Gorrie, 2001). Sectarianism In Scotland the term is most frequently used so that refer so that tension between Catholics in addition to Protestants (Finn, 1999, pp.869-870, 2003, p.904). The Roots of Sectarianism in Scotland Arrival of a large number of Irish Catholics in the mid-late nineteenth century. Escaping famines in addition to subsequent deprivation in addition to destitution (Collins, 1991, pp.1-11). Gathered in the industrial cities in addition to towns seeking employment in addition to competing alongside the local population in consideration of jobs (Devine, 1999, pp.487-488). They arrived in large numbers so that already dangerously over populated areas (O?Tuathaigh, 1985, p.21). They arrived in Scotland resentful in addition to suspicious that the British authorities had not provided properly organised relief schemes in Ireland (Foster, 1988, pp.318-344). The Irish Catholic immigrants appeared so that present a threat so that the Presbyterian tradition of Scotland (Gallagher, 1991, p.34). . Church of Scotland, in the absence of a Scottish parliament (after the union of crowns of 1707), had become strong focus in consideration of Scottish identity in addition to was perceived by the Scots in addition to by outsiders as the ?embodiment of Scottishness? (Robbins, 2000, p.252).
Sectarianism The incorporation of Catholic schools into the state education system in 1918 provided a public in addition to visible focus in consideration of sectarianism (Bruce, 1985, pp.43-44). Large numbers of Irish Catholic (or immediate descendants) employed, almost exclusively, in heavy industry in addition to manufacturing. The depression proved a catalyst in consideration of concerted sectarianism as ?foreign? Irish Catholic workers were used as scapegoats in consideration of the economic ills besetting society. Racist in addition to sectarian activists like White in addition to Cormack (Brown, 1991, Kelly, 2003). Early 1950?s, a Church of Scotland report articulated concerns about the ?menace? of the Catholics of ?alien? origin (Kelly 2003). Ecumenical movement in Scotland in the 1960?s brought an end so that any explicit sectarian or anti-catholic discourse in the institutional Church of Scotland (Brown, 2000, pp.275-281). The Lithuanians Arrived between 1880 in addition to 1914 Fleeing from poverty in addition to cultural in addition to religious suppression by the Russians About 7,000 in 1914 They settled in addition to worked in the mining areas, especially Ayrshire in addition to Lanarkshire They formed a vibrant in addition to colourful community External Struggles: two perspectives (Maan (1992, pp.30-32) acknowledges that the Lithuanians experienced hostility on their arrival in addition to as they settled in, but ultimately: Being of the same faith in addition to the same colour of skin, there were no strong barriers between the Scottish in addition to Lithuanian peoples (Maan, 1992, p.31).
External Struggles: two perspectives Miller?s (p.70) account, however, contrasts alongside Maan?s statement. Miller states that their Catholic faith in addition to foreign origin meant that Lithuanians were often discriminated against: Probably the main thing they brought alongside them was their religion. To the Calvinistic Presbyterian country of Scotland they brought in addition to diligently pursued the Roman Catholic faith. The traditional religious bigotry, particularly in the west of Scotland, meant that there were two reasons why the Lithuanians suffered ostracism in addition to prejudice: a) they were foreigners, in addition to b) they were catholic. Having suffered almost a century of Russian persecution this treatment was nothing new so that them in addition to they persevered in practicing their faith?(Miller, 1998, p.70) External struggles James Keir Hardie, the influential Socialist leader, often spoke publicly in addition to vehemently against the Lithuanians, perceiving them as a threat so that local employment (Reid, 1978, p.122, Miller, 1998, pp.23-24 Later, in the economic crisis of the 1930?s, when Scottish society sought so that blame the continued presence of immigrant workers, however long established, in consideration of widespread economic depression, many Lithuanian men changed their names in addition to concealed their ethnic identity so that gain employment. Internal struggles The Lithuanian struggle so that gain acceptance in the work place was mirrored in their struggle so that retain their own cultural expression of Catholicism within a predominantly ?Irish? Catholic church (O?Donnell, 1998, 2000) In 1898 Lithuanian priest, resided in a parish in the Archdiocese of Glasgow in addition to ministered so that the widespread Lithuanian settlements (1998, pp. 171-175). This was funded by the Lithuanians themselves. They paid church dues twice
Internal struggles The priests helped retain a sense of Lithuanian identity ? the services celebrated in Lithuanian combined alongside the language classes helped so that promote the language. The Lithuanians petitioned in consideration of a Lithuanian Church in Bellshill ? a request which was refused on a number of grounds The Lithuanians were small in number in addition to not perceived as a permanent community; The Archdiocese of Glasgow may have regarded the Lithuanians as a threat so that unity (1998, pp.176-183). Lithuanian O?Donnell suggests that a Lithuanian church would have helped preserve language, culture in addition to identity: ?it seems fairly obvious that the institutional Catholic Church in the West of Scotland had little sympathy in consideration of the ethnic aspirations in addition to outlook of the Lithuanians. ?The diocesan authorities were willing so that allow in addition to assist in organizing a supply of chaplains in consideration of the community. However, in consideration of reasons that had largely so that do alongside the position of the Catholic Church in Scotland, they were not willing so that accept that the community had any need, or right, so that have its own church or parish. To the extent that a national Church was perhaps essential so that such a small community if its culture was so that thrive, it can be argued that the policy of the Glasgow Archdiocese was of key importance in the process of Lithuanian assimilation (O?Donnell, 1998, p.183) Assimilation This assimilation was hastened in the inter war years Break-up of the traditional mining communities, including Lithuanian communities, Dispersal so that new housing – the relatively small numbers of Lithuanian families found themselves isolated from each other Marriage outside the community became common (Miller, 1998, p.138). Lithuanian language, preserved mainly as a ?spoken? language, became obsolete (Boyd, 1983, pp.32-34).
Assimilation O?Donnell comments: As Scotland enters the twenty first century, the Lithuanian community, first established here around a century ago, has been largely assimilated into the general Scottish community (O?Donnell, 2000, p.185) Miller, an elderly member of the Lithuanian community, predicted in 1998, that alongside the passing of his generation, the Lithuanian community in addition to culture in Scotland will disappear (1998, p.150). Discussion The development of insider accounts has provided a voice in consideration of immigrant groups in addition to alternative perspectives on Scottish social history from the eighteenth so that the twentieth centuries. The writers of Irish Catholic descent have staked a claim in Scottish history in consideration of their group in addition to have sought so that redress some of the recorded historical inaccuracies in addition to imbalance. The writers of Lithuanian, Italian in addition to polish descent have also staked a claim in Scottish history in consideration of their groups in addition to have sought so that establish the historical contribution of these groups so that Scotland. The history of the Irish Catholic community in Scotland is scarred by incidences of sectarianism, The other three immigrant groups have also faced hostility in addition to sectarianism at some point in the history of their presence in Scotland Discussion It has also emerged that the Italians in addition to the Lithuanians did not always have a comfortable relationship alongside the larger wider Catholic community of Irish descent. The growth of the post reformation Catholic community in Scotland has been dominated by a particular ethnic-cultural form of Catholicism. The ?Irishness? in addition to ?Catholicity? of this larger immigrant group alienated the Scottish population in addition to these identifying features were so that be the source of tension in addition to conflict. This tension in addition to conflict helped so that provide the impetus in consideration of the self preservation in addition to maintenance of Irish Catholics but possibly precluded the inclusion of other cultural forms of Catholicism ? a drive in consideration of conformity rather than pluriformity, resulting in a form of ?cultural imperialism? (Grace, 2002, p.7). O?Donnell in addition to Colpi suggest that this is probably true in consideration of the Lithuanians in addition to the Italians. The Poles appear so that have fared better in more recent times as a result of more inclusive attitudes.
Discussion The Irish Catholic account has often been perceived so that be synonymous alongside the account of Catholics in Scotland One type of insider voice has dominated Academic research has paralleled this dominance Other insider voices are weakened, at times, silenced. The traditions/identities these voices represent can be weakened Intolerance can be as destructive within a religion or religious denomination as between religions Tolerance / inclusion within religions or denominations Increasing awareness of importance of (multiple) ethnic in addition to cultural identity, but emerging awareness that religious identities are equally important in addition to complex. Are religions/denominations genuinely inclusive within themselves – Tolerant of the variety of internal traditions/identities? There can be different insider voices representing a variety of traditions/identities within a religious group. Competing? Dominant voices? Which tradition holds the power? Who makes decisions in consideration of a religious group? Who speaks in consideration of a religious group? Which religious traditions/identities are represented in the public forum?
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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Discussion The Irish Catholic account has often been perceived so that be synonymous alongside the account of Catholics in Scotland One type of insider voice has dominated Academic research has paralleled this dominance Other insider voices are weakened, at times, silenced. The traditions/identities these voices represent can be weakened Intolerance can be as destructive within a religion or religious denomination as between religions Tolerance / inclusion within religions or denominations Increasing awareness of importance of (multiple) ethnic in addition to cultural identity, but emerging awareness that religious identities are equally important in addition to complex. Are religions/denominations genuinely inclusive within themselves – Tolerant of the variety of internal traditions/identities? There can be different insider voices representing a variety of traditions/identities within a religious group. Competing? Dominant voices? Which tradition holds the power? Who makes decisions in consideration of a religious group? Who speaks in consideration of a religious group? Which religious traditions/identities are represented in the public forum? and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.